DEPARTMENT OF APPLIED BIOCHEMISTRY
FIRST YEAR: FIRST SEMESTER
|CODE||COURSE TITLE||CREDIT UNIT|
|MAT 101||Elementary Mathematics||3|
|GSS 101||Use of English I||1|
|CSC 101||Intro. Comp. Programming||3|
|PHY 101||General physics I||3|
|BIO 101||General Biology I||3|
|GSS108||Igbo basic studies||1|
FIRST YEAR: SECOND SEMESTER
|CODE||COURSE TITLE||CREDIT UNIT|
|MAT 102||Elementary Mathematics I||3|
|GSS 102||Use of English II||1|
|CSC 102||Intro. to Computer Prog. II||3|
|PHY 102||General physics II||3|
|BIO 102||General biology II||3|
|GSS 106||Social sciences||2|
|GSS 109||Igbo basic studies II||1|
YEAR TWO: FIRST SEMESTER
|CODE||COURSE TITLE||CREDIT UNIT|
|BUS 101||Intro. to Business I||1|
|GSS 107||Nigerian peoples and culture||2|
|ICH 101||Basic organic Chemistry||2|
|ICH 111||Basic inorganic chemistry||2|
|MAT 201||Linear Algebra||3|
|PHY 201||Modern physics||3|
YEAR TWO: SECOND SEMESTER
|CODE||COURSE TITLE||CREDIT UNIT|
|ICH 202||Basic physical chemistry||2|
|BCH 102||Intro. Biochemistry||3|
|MAT 202||Elem. Diff. Equations||3|
|STA 202||Intro. to statistical inference||3|
|BUS 102||Intro. to Business II||1|
|ICH 112||Practical chemistry||2|
|GSS 106||Social sciences||2|
YEAR THREE: FIRST SEMESTER
|CODE||COURSE TITLE||CREDIT UNIT|
|ICH 201||General Organic Chemistry||2|
|ICH 211||General Inorganic Chemistry||2|
|ICH 221||General physical chemistry||2|
|BIO 251||General Genetics||3|
|BCH 351||Biochemical Lab. techniques||2|
YEAR THREE: SECOND SEMESTER
|CODE||COURSE TITLE||CREDIT UNIT|
|ICH 202||General organic chem. II||2|
|BCH 202||Introduction to Met. Pathways||2|
|BCH 222||Bioenergetics and Biocatalysis||2|
|BCH 232||Physiological chemistry||2|
|AMB 111||Introductory Microbiology||3|
|BCH 212||Biological macromolecules||2|
YEAR FOUR: FIRST SEMESTER
|CODE||COURSE TITLE||CREDIT UNIT|
|ICH 301||Organic Chemistry||2|
|BCH 301||Primary metabolic pathways I||3|
|BCH 311||Cell and molecular biology||3|
|BCH 321||Introductory pharmacology||2|
|BCH 331||Biochem. Instru. and techniques||3|
|BCH 341||Food and nutritional biochem.||2|
YEAR FOUR: SECOND SEMESTER
|CODE||COURSE TITLE||CREDIT UNIT|
|BCH 242||Computational biochemistry||3|
|BCH 422||Advanced clinical biochemistry||2|
|BCH 432||Immunochemistry and immunology||3|
|BCH 452||Biochemical pharmacology||3|
YEAR FIVE: FIRST SEMESTER
|CODE||COURSE TITLE||CREDIT UNIT|
|BCH 361||Plant Biochemistry||3|
|BCH 421||Biological memb. And bio sig.||3|
|BCH 401||Primary metabolic pathways II||3|
|BCH 461||Advanced biochemical methods||3|
YEAR FIVE: SECOND SEMESTER
|CODE||COURSE TITLE||CREDIT UNIT|
YEAR SIX: FIRST SEMESTER
|CODE||COURSE TITLE||CREDIT UNIT|
|BCH 411||Frontiers in Biochem, Mol Biol and Biotech||2|
|BCH 431||Biochemistry of parasites||2|
|BCH 441||Biotechnology and industrial biochemistry||2|
|BCH 451||Microbial biochemistry||2|
|BCH 499||Research project||2|
YEAR SIX: SECOND SEMESTER
|CODE||COURSE TITLE||CREDIT UNIT|
|BCH 402||Advanced enzymology and reg. mechanisms||3|
|BCH 412||Biochemical reasoning and special topics||2|
|BCH 442||Molecular biology and genetic eng.||3|
|BCH 499||Research project||2|
COURSE DESCRIPTION APPLIED BIOCHEMISTRY
GSS 101 1 UNITS
GS 105: Humanities (2 credit hours)
GS 107 Nigerian Peoples and Culture (2 credit hours)
MAT. 101 Elementary Mathematics 1 (3 credits)
Number systems- natural, integer, rational, irrational, real complex numbers. Elementary set theory. Indices, surds and logarithms. Quadratic equations. Polynomials and the factorizations: – the remainder and factor theorems. Rational functions and partial fractions. The PMI (Principle Mathematics Induction). PERUTATIONA AND COMBINATION. The Binomial theorem for rational index. Progression – arithmetic, geometric, harmonic, arithmetic – geometric. Solution of inequalities. The algebra of complex numbers: – addition, subtraction, multiplication and divisions: Argand diagrams and the geometry of complex number: Modulus; arguments and polar coordinates; the demoivre’s theorem. Complex nth roots of unity and complex solutions to Zn = a. trigonometry- circular measures, addition, formulae and other trigonometric identities, sine and cosine laws; solutions of triangles, heights and distances.
CSC 101: Introduction to Computer Programming (3 Units)
History of computers; functional components of computer characteristics of a computer. Number systems, Boolean Algebra, Flowchart; Algorithms; statement symbolic names lists and arrays; subscripts, expressions and control statements in computer programming. Programming in BASIC. Computer application. Strategy for computer programming. Rules that guide the writing of BASIC programs/statements. Library functions. User-defined functions. Subprogram & Subprograms & Subroutine in basic.
PHY 101 General Physics 1 (3 Credits)
Space and Time, frames of reference, units and dimension, kinematics-vectors, scalars, speed/velocity, acceleration, circular motion and applications. Fundamental Laws of mechanics.
Statics: Equilibrium, Centre of mass,
Dynamics: Newton’s Law of Motion, Force, Inertia, Mass and weight, Contact forces, Atwood machine, Pulleys. Projectile motion.
Linear momentum. Galilean Invariance, Universal, Gravitation- Newton’s Gravitation
Law: Kepler’s Laws, Gravitational Potential, Earth’s Satellite, Velocity of escape and weightlessness. Work and energy. Rotational dynamics and Angular momentum, moment of inertia, Kinetic Energy of rotation; Conservation Laws, Oscillatory motion – Simple Harmonic, Damped and forced Oscillation.
ICH 101: Basic Organic Chemistry (2 Units)
- Brief Historical background, binding in organic compounds the carbon atom, hybridization ( SP3 SP2 SP).
- Classification of organic compounds
- Isolation and purification of organic compounds
- Elemental or qualitative analysis
- Quantitative analysis
- Formulae of organic compounds- (empirical, molecular and structural). Structural and stereoisomerisms, Functional group and homologous series.
IUPAC Nomenclature of the following family of organic compound: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, halogenoalkanes, alkanols, alkanals, alkanones, alkanotes, acid amides, nitriles, and amines alkanoic acids, acid chlorides and acid anhydrides.
Preparation, physical and chemical properties of the families listed above.
ICH 111- General Basic Inorganic Chemistry I (2units)
Matter; Laws of Chemical Combination, Stoichmetry of chemical kinetics.
Atomic structure and electronic configuration of elements. Electronic theory of valences. Bonding; ionic, covalent, co-ordinate, metallic, hydrogen bonding and Van der Waals forces. Fundamental compounds of atoms stable and unstable particles, periodic classification of elements. Block, rows and groups. General features of chemistry of s-,p-,d and f-blocks isotopes detection, concentration and separation of isotopes.
BIO 101- General Biology I (3Credits)
Cell structure and organization of cellular organelles diversity characteristics and classification of living things, general reproduction, inter relationship of organisms, heredity and evolution, elements of ecology and types of habitats
GSS 102 1 CREDIT UNIT
GS 106 Social Science (2 credit hours)
MAT. 102 Elementary Mathematics II (3Credits)
Functions: Concept and definitions, examples-polynomial, exponential logarithmic and trigonometric functions. Graphs and their properties. Plane analytic geometry:- equation of a straight line, circle, parabola, ellipse and hyperbola. Tangents and normal. Differentiation from first principles of some polynomial and trigonometric functions. Techniques of differentiation- sum, product, quotient and chain rule including implicit differentiation. Differentiation of simple algebraic, trigonometric, exponential, logarithmic and composite functions. Higher order derivaties. Applications to extramum and simple rate problems. L’ Hospital’s rule, simple Taylor/McClaurin expansion. Curve sketching. Applications to areas and volumes.
PHY 102 General Physics II (3Credits)
Electrostatic: Coulomb’s law, Gauss’s law, capacitors, Electric fields and potentials, energy in electric field. Conductors and currents; Ohms law, Temperature dependence of resistance combinations of Resistances. Measurement of Resistances, emfs. Dielectrics (Qualitative treatment only), magnetic fields and induction, faraday’s and Lewnz’s Laws, Earth’s field, ampere’s law. Maxwell’s equations (Qualitative treatment only),Electromagnetic oscillations and waves, types, properties. Mirrors and lenses, reflection, refraction, applications. Optical instrument.
ICH 102: Basic Physical Chemistry (2units)
The gas laws; Boyle’s law, Charles law, the general gas equation, Gay-Lussac’s Law; Gas constant. Dalton’s law of partial pressures, Graham’s law of gaseous diffusion. The kinetic theory of matter. Derivation of the kinetic equation Derivations from the ideal gas law; Vander waal’s equation, liquefaction of gases, the Joule-Thompson effect.
Properties of dilute solution
Definition of the following concentration terms; molarity, molality, mole fraction, vapour pressure and lowering of vapour pressure; Raoults law; elevation of boiling point, lowering of freezing point; osmotic pressure.
Introduction to Thermodynamics and thermo chemistry
Definition of the following terms: systems, state variables, and equilibrium, Isothermal and adiabatic processes, the first law of thermodynamics; work done for state changes (PV type)
Thermo chemistry: Heat changes, heat reaction, Laws of thermo chemistry (Lavoisier and Laplace and Hess law of constant heat summation). Application of the laws in calculations, Bond Energy.
Chemical equilibrium and reversible reaction. The law of mass Action; equilibrium constant, Factors affecting chemical equilibrium, Equilibrium between ions in the solid and liquid phases; solubility product, effect of a common ion on solubility product.
Rate of a chemical reaction; Factors affecting the rate of a chemical reaction.
Electrolytes; Acids and Bases: Bronzed Lowry, Lewis and Arhenius theories of acids and bases. PH and Dissociation constant, ionization of water Hydrolysis, Buffer solution and Buffer capacity.
CSC 102: Introduction to computer programming (3 Units)
Introduction to problem solving methods and algorithm development; designing coding debugging and documenting programs (i.e. flow charts control statements INPUT/OUTPUT statements, DO statements, Array, Subscripts, Dimension statements) using techniques of FORTRAN.
BIO 102- General Biology II (3 Credits)
Generalized survey of plant and animal kingdoms based mainly study of similarities and differences in the external features and ecological adaptation of these forms.
BCH 102: INTRODUCTORY BIOCHEMISTRY (3 CREDITS)
|1||Historical perspectives of Biochemistry||2|
|2||The building units of macromolecules – structures and functions of amino acids, monosaccharides, glycerol, fatty acids, choline and nitrogenous bases. Abiotic synthesis of building units.||2|
|3||The classification and hierarchical organization of macromolecules. Proteins – globular, fibrous, albumin, prolamin, gliadin, globulin and lignin. Lipids – phospholipids, sphingolipids, plasmologens, VLDL, HDLP, soap, micelles, membrane, e.t.c Nucleic acids – nucleosides, nucleotides, DNA, RNA, rRNA, tRNA, mRNA.||3|
|4||The physical and chemical properties of water, weak acids and bases, pH, pOH, pKa, pKb, etc. Buffer solutions. Preparation of solutions.||2|
|5||The properties and classification of enzymes||1|
|6||The living cells of plants and animals – Biochemical structures, size dimension and functions of organelles.||2|
ICH 112: Basic Chemistry (2Units)
Theory and practice of volumetric and qualitative inorganic analysis. Preparation of standard solutions, calculation of molarity and concentrations.
Method of dilution of solutions and calculation. Redox titration and calculations involved. Test for common anions and identification of SO42- , SO32- , NO3 – ,CO3 2- , Cl–, Br–, I–, NO2– . Test for common cations: Fe2+, Fe3+, NH4+, Zn2+, Pb2+, Al3+, alkali and alkaline earth metals. Test for common ions in the first transition series e.g. Mn, Cr, Ni, Cu, etc. Group separation of cations.
MAT 201: Linear algebra I (3 Credit UNIT)
Vectors and vector algebra. Vector space over the real field.
Linear dependence and independence; basis and dimensions. The dot and cross products in 3- dimensions. Equations of lines and plane in free space. Linear transformation and their representation by matrices. Matrix algebra. Operation on representation by matrices: – rank, range, null space, nullity. Determinants and inverses of matrices. Singular and Non-singular transformations.
PHY 201; General Physics (3Credits)
(Elementary Modern Physics)
Relativity; Inertial frames, Galilean transformations, Coriolis force, Defects in Newtonian Mechanics, the speed of light; the Lorentz transformation; transformation of velocities and acceleration. Length contraction and time-dilation. Mass Energy relation. Experimental basis of quantum theory: Blackbody radiation; electrons and quanta; Thomson’s and Rutherford’s models. Bohr’s theory of atomic structure; De Broglie hypothesis, the uncertainty principles; Schrodinger’s equation and simple applications. Radioactivity, X-rays and its applications.
ICH 211: General Inorganic Chemistry (2 Units)
Detailed treatment of factors that constitute periodic properties. Ionization energy, electron affinity, electronagativity, chemical bonding: ionic, covalent, metallic bonds; van der waal’s forces; the hydrogen bond. Stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric defects. Introduction to molecular orbital and valence bond theories, molecular geometry and hybridization. Ionic Lattice, lattice energies, the Mandelung constant.
ICH 201: General Organic Chemistry (2 Units)
- Electron Effects in Organic molecules.
Electron displacement in molecules, inductive effects; electromeric effect, mesomeric effect and resonance;inductomeric effect hyperconjugation mesomerism, tautomerism.
- Introduction to reaction mechanism.
Breaking of covalent bonds, collision theory of reaction rates, molecularity of a reaction. Reaction kinetics, Order and molecularity.
- Preparation, physical and chemical properties and uses of various classes of organic compound such as alkanes, alkenes, alkynes,halogenoalkenes, alkanals, and alkanones, alkanoic acids. Derivative of alkanoic acids (namely acid chlorides, acid anhydrides, alkanotes and acid amides) Nitriles and amines. A mechanistic approach should be used to explain the chemical reaction treated in each case.
ICH 221: General Physical Chemistry (2 Units)
Kinetic Theory: Behaviour of gases and kinetic theory. Ideal and non-ideal behavour of gases. Derivation of the kinetic theory equation for the pressure of an ideal gas and deductions there from. Molecular and Collision-Collision diameter and number. Mean free path; viscosity of a gas; Boltzmann distribution law. Types of speed; mean velocity, root-mean-square velocity and most probable velocity.
Chemical Thermodynamics; Nature and scope of thermodynamics, important definitions, the first law of thermodynamics, calorimetry, standars molar enthalpies of formation and the determination of standard molar enthalpy for chemical reactions from tables of these; Heat capacities. The carnot Cycle.
Bio 251- General Genetics (3 Credits)
Historical background and mendel’s work. Basic terminologies, chemical nature of the gene and gene interactions. Hereditable and non- Hereditable characteristics. Sex determination, inheritance in population, multiple allels sex linkage, mutation; molecular basis of inheritance (DNA, RNA and protein synthesis). The concept and theory of evolution, variation and natural selection. Aspects of human genetics and common genetic diseases.
AMB 211: Introductory Microbiology and Brewing
Microbial cell types- Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes; bacterial cell structure and function. The biology of bacteria, fungi, protozoa, algae and viruses. Ecological relationship and the role of microorganisms in natural and special environment such as soil, water, milk, food industry and in diseases. Definition and scope of brewing science, interrelationship with other sciences, principles and application of brewing science dealing with beer production, its supply, quality and safety. Physiology and biochemistry of cereals used in dealing with beer production, its supply, quality and safety. Physiology and biochemistry of cereals used in brewing barley; sorghum, maize, rice, millet, hops. Career opportunities for brewing scientists.
BCH 201: INTRODUCTORY BIOMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY (2 CREDITS)
|1||The chemical composition of living organisms. The Geometry, Bond Strength, Electronegativity, Bond energies, Van der waals forces, radii or carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur bondings||2|
|2||The three dimensional structures of simple biomolecules, configuration and conformation, molecular model of small molecules, stereoisomerism and stereo specificity.||2|
|3||Molecular Model of small molecules, stereoisomerism, reactions and importance||1|
|4||Carbohydrate chemistry – classification, structure, isomerism, reactions and importance.||2|
|5||Lipid chemistry – classifications, structures and reactions.||2|
|6||Amino acids chemistry – classification, structures and reactions.||2|
BUS 101- Introduction to Business I (3 Credits)
A study of the nature of business organizations. The character of business from social and economic perspective. Scope of business; roles of business; external properties of the business; role of business; type of economic systems. Why study business.
FORMS OF BUSINESS OWNERSHIP;
Sole proprietorship, partnership, joint stock company, statutory corporations/public enterprises, and cooperative societies.
MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATION
Nature of management, functions of management, line and staff functions in organizations.
PRODUCTION AND MARKETING
Types of production; production processes; the marketing concept; marketing functions
THE FINANCE FUNCTION
Type of financing-short term, medium term, long term financing. Factors influencing choice of funds. Types of shares
THE ACCOUNTING FUNCTION
Purpose of accounting, principles of accounting, double entry bookkeeping, day books, Ledger accounts, the trial balance, profit and loss account, and the balance sheet.
MAT 202: Elementary Differential Equations (3 Credits)
Methods of integration, introduction to differential equations- classification, order, degree. Ordinary differential equations of the first order. Examples to illustrate the sources of differential equation from the physical and biological sciences-growth, decay, cooling problems and the law of mass action. Linear differential equation of second order. Application of the first and second order linear differential equations to falling problems and simple circuits. Laplace transformations.
STAT 202: Statistics for Applied Science (3 Credits)
Frequency distribution. Measures of tendency and measures of dispersion. Laws of probability. Sampling techniques. Probability distributions. The Binomial, Poisson and Normal distributions. Estimation and test of Hypothesis: z, t,x2 and F- tests, Regression and Correlation. Analysis of Variance. Contingency tables. Simple non-parametric tests.
ICH 202: General Organic Chemistry II (2 units)
Preparation proterties and uses of cycloalkenes, cycloalkanes, cycloalkadienes.
Aromatic hydrocarbon, aromaticity, properties of aromatic compound, chemical properties of benzene.electrophic substitution reaction, detailed mechanisms of the following electrophilic substitution reaction should be studied using benzene as example: halogenations, nitration, sulphonation, akylation, acylation, addition and hydrogenation.
Effect of substitutions on the reactivity and orientation of electrophic substitution of benzene. Ortho-, para, and meta directing groups. Reactions of the side chains of alkylbenzenes: ring substitution reactions, addition reactions, and side chain substitution reactions; oxidation of the side chain.
Structure, synthesis and reactions of isolated ring systems (diphenyl, diphenylmenthane, diphenylstilbene) structure, synthesis and reactions of naphthalene, anthracene and phenanthrene.
BCH 202: INTRODUCTORY METABOLIC PATHWAYS (2 CREDITS)
|1||Spontaneous reaction, free energy change of reaction and activation energy.||1|
|2||The properties, nomenclature and function of enzymes||1|
|3||Glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and pentose phosphate pathways||2|
|4||Tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation||2|
|5||Beta-oxidation and starvation (Ketone bodies).||1|
|6||Amino acid pool, nitrogen balance, protein degradation, deamination and transamination reactions. The urea cycle.||2|
|7||Photosynthesis: The Light and dark reactions – Calvin cycle.||2|
BCH 212: BIOLOGICAL MACROMOLECULES (3 CREDITS)
|1||Carbohydrates and glycobiology – structure, activity and function.
Polysaccharides – starch, glycogen, cellulose, chitin and inulin. Proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycans, peptidoglycans.
Glycoproteins – lectins, selectins.
Glycolipids – gangliosides, lipopolysaccharide. Analyses of carbohydrates.
|2||Protein three-dimensional structure and activity – primary structure and protein sequence determination.
Secondary structures – peptide bond angle, length, rigidity and structure, Alpha-helix, Ramachandran plot, Beta-conformation, Beta-turns.
Tertiary structures – Fibrous proteins, alpha-Keratin, collagen, fibrin, Globular proteins-three dimensional structures, troponin, antibodies, myoglobin, ribonuclease, Lysozyme. Super-secondary structures.
Quaternary structures – multimeric proteins, rotational and helical symmetry. Haemoglobin, poliovirus coal protein, molecular size of proteins and limitation to size
|3||The use of X-ray and NMR for studying protein structures, protein folding and denaturation – -chaperones and chaperonins.||1|
|4||Nucleic acids and Nucleotides. Properties of Nucleotides, Absorption spectra, Tautomerism, phosphodiester bonds in Nucleic acids, base pairing and hydrogen bonding.||1|
|5||Three-dimensional structures of RNA – tRNA, rRNA, mono and polycistronic mRNA.
DNA-double helix, distinctive composition, A, B and Z forms. Triplex and Tetraplex DNA, H-DNA, hairpins and cruciforms.
|6||Non-enzymatic transformation of nucleic acids – pyrimidine dimerization, nucleic acid hybridization, denaturation of DNA. Functions of nucleotides – energy compounds, enzyme cofactors.||2|
|7||Lipids – Glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, gangliosides, lipoproteins|
BCH 222: BIOENERGETICS AND BIOCATALYSIS (2 CREDITS)
|1||The laws of thermodynamics. Concept of free energy, entropy, high-energy compounds, free energy change for the hydrolysis of ATP, thiolesters and high-energy compounds.||2|
|2||Oxidation-reduction reaction, reduction potential, standard reduction potential and its measurement. Electron carriers.||2|
|3||Catalysis and activation energy – transition state reactions, Arrhenius equation, calculation of activation energy and energy of denaturation. Effect of temperature on catalysis.||2|
|4||Kinetics of enzyme catalyzed reactions. Michealis-Mention equation, Lineweaver-Burke plot and other transformations. Effect of pH and inhibitors.||3|
|5||Allosteric and regulatory enzymes.||1|
|6||Purification and quantitative estimation of enzymes activity. Purification tables and units of enzyme activity.||2|
BCH 232: PHYSIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY (3 CREDITS)
|1||Body fluids-classification and composition||1|
|2||Blood clotting, blood groups and rhesus factor. Homeostasis, regulation and disorders of acids-base balance. Homeostatic control of sugars||2|
|3||Renal systems- structure and functions||1|
|4||Nervous system-structure and function of neurons, the nerve impulse, organization of nervous system – peripheral and autonomic nervous system||2|
|5||Muscular system – types, structure and functions. Myocytes, actin, myosin and muscles contraction||2|
|6||Respiratory system – structure of the lungs, mechanism of breathing||1|
|7||Cardiovascular system – structure and function||1|
|8||Endocrine system – the pituitary, anterior and posterior lobe hormones||1|
|9||Gastrointestinal tract – digestion and absorption||1|
|10||Liver – structure and functions||2|
BCH 242: COMPUTATIONAL BIOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY (2 CREDITS)
|1||Introduction to the Internet – World wide web
Internet resources, browsers, search engines,
Pubmed, Databases and its retrieval
|2||Nucleotide Sequence databases and analysis. Genes and genome – prokaryotic and eukaryotic genes.
GenBank entry and Genome Databases, organelle genome. Gene identification with internet resources. Exploring the human genome
|3||Protein Sequence database – Sequence alignment and similarity search. Multiple sequence alignment.
Proteomics – analysis and internet resources.
ORFs. Introns, exons – Finding protein coding regions. Predicting protein structure-secondary structures and domains of proteins, structured classifications
|4||Phylogenetic analysis – Applications and inference. Evolution, Online and generic sources.||1|
|5||Biochemical data analysis and management. Spread sheet applications, Microsoft excel, Microsoft Access and SPSS, other simple and multiple regression and correlation software applications||2|
BUS 102- Introduction To business II (3Credits)
(Pre-requisite: BUS 101)
This course is designed to familiarize the student with forms of business and management process.
BUSINESS INTEGRATION AND COMBINATION
Types of business integration; reasons for business integration; problems of business integration.
Government and business; government in business; reasons for government involvement in business
BUSINESS ORGANIZATION AND SOCIAL RESPONSBILITY
What is social responsibility of business? Social issues facing business organizations; the debate on the social responsibility of business-Nigeria’s corporate experience.
INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS/INTERNATIONAL TRADE
Theories of international trade; reasons for international trade, terms of international trade.
MANAGEMENT OF INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS
Trade union formation and growth; Trade union objectives; problems of trade unions; formation of employer’s association; objectives and functions of employer’s association; the role of government in labour-management relatiionships
ICH 301: Mechanisms of organic reactions (2 units)
Basic concepts, brief review of orbital, hybridization and bonding. Classification of reagents and reactions. Investigations of reaction mechanism by Kinetic and non-Kinetic methods. Energy profiles and reaction rates. Application of above to various classes of reactions out listed below;
Nucleophilic substitution at saturated carbonation: SN1 and SN2 mechanisms; effects of structure and solvent; stereochemical manifestations of the different mechanisms. Neighbouring group participation and molecular rearrangement. Electrophilic aromatic substitution; effects of substituent on reactivity and orientation of further substitution; ionic mechanism for nitration, halogenations and sulphonation. Ortho para ratios.
Nucleophilic aromatic substitution: SN1 and SN1 benzene mechanisms, smiles rearrangement etc.
Elimination and Addition Reactions
Wand B elimination: E1 and E2 mechanisms. Saytzef and Hofmann rules; Dehydration and dehydrogenation. Addition to C-O, C-N and C-C multiple bonds.
Esterification and Hydrolysis
Mechanisms of acyl oxygen fissions and alkyl oxygen fissions. Tautomerism; Types and theories of tautomerism. Estimations of enol content in keto-enol tautomerism
BCH 301: PRIMARY METABOLIC PATHWAYS 1 (3 CREDITS)
|1||Catabolism of glucose, galactose and fructose, etc., Glycolysis, regulation of glycolysis, Pasteur effect, anaerobic fermentation.||2|
|2||Gluconeogenesis-from lactate, amino acids, glycerol, Regulation of the Cori cycle.||1|
|3||The Citric Acid Cycle and the Glyoxylate Cycle||1|
|4||Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation, Mechanism of ATP synthesis, effect of ionophore, uncoupler and energy transfer inhibitors.||2|
|5||Glycogenesis and Glycogenolysis, regulation and synthesis of starch, sucrose and others.||1|
|6||The Pentose Phosphate Pathway||1|
|7||Lipid metabolism, dietary lipids and lipoproteins. Fatty acid oxidation, synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies. Synthesis of fatty acids, triacyglycerol, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, cholesterol and steroid hormones.||3
BCH 311: CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY 1 (3 CREDITS)
|1||DNA structure and size, Chromatin and nucleoid structure, DNA supercoiling and conjugation||2|
|2||DNA metabolism – replication, repair and recombination||1|
|3||RNA metabolism – DNA transcription, reverse transcription, regulation of transcription, operons, post-transcriptional processing of RNA||1|
|4||Protein metabolism – protein synthesis, genetic code, initiation, elongation and termination of protein synthesis, post-translation processing, protein targeting and transport, protein degradation||2|
|5||Mutation, mutagenic agents and cancer||1|
|6||Molecular description of the life cycle of Lambda, M13, HIV, etc.||1|
|6||Organization of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic genome, intron, exon, transposon, retrotransposon, GC, and AT content of genes, satellite DNA, palindrome, others||1|
|7||Molecular Tools – Restriction Endonucleases, DNA ligases, natural and artificial vectors of gene transfer, plasmids, cosmids, virus, Polymerase Chain Reaction, DNA hybridization, etc.||2|
BCH 321: INTRODUCTORY PHARMACOLOGY (2 CREDITS)
|1||Definition of common terms in pharmacology – drugs. Source and composition||1|
|3||Important Pharmaceutical preparations, drug identity and nomenclature.||1|
|4||Routes of drug administration, placebo effect, drug allergy, drug idiosyncrasy.||1|
|5||Drug interactions – cummulation, synergism, tolerance, antagonism||1|
|6||Drug tolerance and drug resistance||1|
|7||General pharmacologic response to drugs – nature and mechanism||1|
|8||Concept of agonists, antagonists and receptors||1|
|9||Quantitative pharmacology – dose response, therapeutic index (TI), lethal dose, etc.||1|
|10||Cellular metabolism in infected cells. Host parasite relationships||1|
|11||Biochemical basis of chemotherapy, Enzyme inhibitors as drugs||1|
|12||The physical basis of drug selectivity||1|
|13||Traditional medicine – management of malaria, sickle cell anemia, common cold, hepatitis etc. with plant extracts.||1|
BCH 331: BIOCHEMICAL INSTRUMENTATION AND TECHNIQUES (3 CREDITS)
|1||Microscopy, Light and Electron microscopy, ion probe analysis and video microscopy||1|
|2||Calomel and Glass electrodes for pH measurement.||1|
|3||Ultra filtration and dialysis.||1|
|4||Centrifugation – principles, differential, density gradient, ultra centrifugation: analysis of subcellular fraction||1|
|5||Spectroscopy-spectrophotometry, turbidometry, nephrometry, Atomic absorption, atomic emission, spectroflourimetry||2|
|6||Chromatography – principles. Types – paper, thin layer, absorption, molecular exclusion, partition, affinity, ion exchange, gas-liquid, high performance, low pressure. Detection, quantification and analysis of biomolecules by chromatography||2|
|7||Electrophoresis cellulose acetate, agarose gel, starch gel, SDS- polyacrylamide gel, isoelectric focusing detection, estimation of molecular weight of protein. Western, Northern and Southern blotting||2|
|8||Radioisotopic techniques – Nature of radioactivity, counting, radioactivity and data analysis, ELISA, Application in immunology and bioassays||2|
BCH 341: FOOD AND NUTRITIONAL BIOCHEMISTRY (2 CREDITS)
|1||Food nutrients-carbohydrates, proteins, essential amino acids, fats, water.||1|
|2||Food nutrients-vitamins and their co-enzyme derivatives, A, B, C, D, E, K, Lipoic acid, pantothenic acid, folic acid, biotin, choline-structures, sources, reactions and deficiency syndrome of vitamins||2|
|3||Food nutrients requirement sources, reactions and deficiency syndrome of macro and micro minerals. Relationship between physiochemical and biological function of inorganic ions, ligand complexes and function||1|
|4||Food analysis proximate analysis, moisture and dry matter, organic and inorganic matter, ash||1|
|5||Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR), measurement and factors that influence BMR.||2|
|6||Anutrients in food-phytohaemagglutinin, protease inhibitors, phytate, phytoestrogen, sapponin, tannins, polyphenols, flatulence factors, amylase inhibitors, anti-vitamins, amino acid analogues, goitrogens, etc. Beneficial effects of anutrients||2|
|7||Food additive, food toxin: monosodium glutamate, artificial sweeteners, colouring, aflax||1|
|8||Nutritional disorders: protein energy malnutrition, obesity and diabetes||1|
|9||Nutritional status: recommended daily allowance.||1|
|10||Diet and physiological stress, ageing, pregnancy and athletics.||1|
BCH 351 BIOCHEMICAL LABORATORY TECHNIQUES (2 CREDITS)
|1||Introduction- The work environment, health and safety. Analysis of data. Graphs, bar, histogram, pie-chart and rectangle co-ordinates, plot y vs x, standard curve, average, standard error, standard deviation, confidence limits, frequency, least square methods, etc.||1|
|2||Solutions – distilled water, de-ionized water, buffer solution – titration of weak acids and bases, calculation and preparation of standard solutions. Solutions of standard ionic strength||1|
|3||Carbohydrate – quantitative and qualitative analysis, Molisch, Bial’s Seliwanoff, iodine, Barfoed, Benedict and Fehling tests. Estimation of starch and glycogen content – Anthrone, Phenolsulphuric acid methods||1|
|4||Amino Acids- qualitative and quantitative analysis; Xanthoproteic, Millions, Sakaguchi and Ninhydrin reactions||1|
|5||Lipids-qualitative and quantitative analysis. Acid value of oils, saponification value, isolation of fatty acids.||1|
|6||Nucleic acids and Nucleotides – Isolation of RNA and DNA||1|
|7||Estimation of RNA and DNA tissue. Effect of temperature on the viscosity of DNA||1|
|8||Chromatography- paper, thin layer and adsorption. Separation of ink and plant pigments||1|
|9||Chromatography- Gel and ion exchange, separation of proteins.||1|
|10||Electrophoresis – paper and gel. Separation of haemoglobin A and S
· Photosynthesis- isolation of chloroplast, reduction of DCPIP by chloroplast.
· Blood glucose levels in diabetes
· Metabolic changes associated with organisms.
BCH 361: PLANT BIOCHEMISTRY (3 CREDITS)
|1||Organization of plant cells – structure of plant cell wall and function of organelles. Plant cell wall – three dimensional structure composition and function||1|
|2||Stages in plant development, totipotency, plant cell tissue and organ feature, seed germination and growth.||1|
|3||Photosynthesis – C3, C4 and crasulassean acid metabolism in plants photorespiration||1|
|4||Nitrogen metabolism – nitrogen cycle and non-protein amino acids. Transport and storage of amino acids in plants. Classification of plant proteins. Cyanogenic glycosides – structure and toxicity. Sulphur cycle||1|
|5||Plant root and soil interaction. Plant exudates, symbiotic and non-symbiotic nitrogen fixation||1|
|6||Phytohormones and related compounds: auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acid, ethylene, and other plant growth regulators||1|
|7||Herbicides – mechanism of action, residue determination and toxicity||1|
|8||Nitrogen compounds – classification, structure and biosynthesis of alkaloids, chlorophyll, model and amines||1|
|9||Plant phenolics – structure, function and biosynthesis of phenols, phenolic acids, phenylacetic acid, hydroxyciannamic acid, quinins, xanthones, stilbenes, flavonoids, lignans and neolignans, biflavonoids, tannins and melanins||2|
|10||Trepenoids – structure, synthesis and function of essential oils, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, steroids, carotenoids and polyisoprene.||1|
|11||Physiochemical methods – methods of plant analysis-extraction, separation, identification and analysis of plant component, fractionation into different class of polarity.||1|
YEAR THREE, SECOND SEMESTER COURSE
BCH 399: SIWES (6 CREDITS)
|Students Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES)||6|
BCH 401: PRIMARY METABOLIC PATHWAYS II (3 CREDITS)
|1||Nitrogen metabolism, nitrogen cycle, nitrogen fixation, glutamine synthetase in nitrogen metabolism||2|
|2||Amino Acid biosynthesis and its regulation. Defects in amino acid metabolism. Synthesis of molecules derived from amino acids-porphyrins, creatinine, glutathione, amino acids, others.||2|
|3||Nucleotide and nuleic acid synthesis. Salvage and de-novo pathways and regulation||2|
|4||Nitrogenous excretory products – amino acid oxidation, production of urea, degradation of nucleotides, nuleic acid, purines and pyrimidines: Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, Gout.||2|
|5||Integration and hormonal regulation of mammalian metabolism. Tissue specific metabolism, hormonal regulation of such metabolism-epinephrine, glucagons, insulin, cortisol||3|
BCH 411: FRONTIERS IN BIOCHEMISTRY, MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY (2 CREDITS)
|Students are assigned topics that will expose them to current literature search and contemporary studies to be presented in weekly Department seminar. Presentation which must be prepared using PowerPoint presentation and abstract of the presentation should be submitted one week before actual presentation date.
Seminar grading scheme includes abstract, scope of content, standard of presentation, conclusion, references and response to questions
BCH 421: BIOLOGICAL MEMBRANE AND BIOSIGNALLING (3 CREDITS)
|1||Structure, composition and function of biological membranes-lipids, proteins and carbohydrates. Biogenesis – isolation and characterization of membranes. Artificial membranes||2|
|2||Membrane dynamics. Phase transition, motion of membrane components, heterokaryon membrane fusion – exocytosis, endocytosis||1|
|3||Transport across membrane – simple and facilitated diffusion exchange diffusion, symport, uniport, active transport – free energy of transport, primary and secondary active transport systems. Classification of ATPases, ion gradient for transport, ion-selective channels, acetylcholine receptor, porins, etc., defective ion channel, ionophores||2|
|4||Signal transduction features
· Gated ion channels – electrical signaling
· Ligand-gated ion channel, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.
· Voltage-gated ion channel, neuronal action potential
|5||Receptor enzymes signal transductions – tyrosine-specific protein||2|
|6||Kinases, insulin-receptor protein kinase, G guanyl cyclase G-protein coupled receptors: beta-Adrenergic receptor – epinephrine
· Camp signaling
· Diacyglycerol and IP3 signaling.
· Calcium signaling
|7||Sensory transduction in vision, olfaction and gustation||1|
BCH 431: BIOCHEMISTRY OF PARASITES (2 CREDITS)
|1||Review of major tropical pathogenic viruses and bacteria, tropical parasitic protozoa and metazoan||2|
|2||Distribution and metabolism of inorganic substances in tropical parasites. Disturbance of host inorganic metabolism. Metabolism in parasitic infections.||2|
|3||Distribution and metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and vitamins in tropical parasites, peculiarities of the metabolic machinery of parasites are highlighted.||2|
|4||Respiration – aerobic and anaerobic respiration in parasites: respiratory chain, oxidative phosphorylation, host-induced variations in respiration of the host||2|
|5||Control of parasitic infections – control of vectors, mechanism of action of insecticides, biological control of vectors, mechanism of parasitic diseases||2|
|6||Chemotherapy – mechanism, differences in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and proteins. Enzyme and organelle targets to be emphasized||2|
BCH 441: BIOTECHNOLOGY AND INDUSTRIAL BIOCHEMISTRY (2 CREDITS)
|1||Bioreactors – principles, designs and application, Plant and animal cell culture||1|
|2||Fermentation technology-fermentation products – alcoholic, amino acid and secondary metabolites. Antibiotic products of biotechnology – structures, vinegar, organic flavour enhancers, ogili||2|
|3||Strain selection and development – mutagenesis, over-production of metabolites and gene dosage. Screening and selection of micro-organism of industrial importance||2|
|4||Genetic Engineering for improved plants and animals, metabolic engineering, protein engineering and antibody engineering||1|
|5||Principles of industrial enzymology. Principle and application of cell and enzyme immobilization. Large-scale protein/enzyme purification techniques. Application of enzymes in industrial and clinical analysis. Biosensors.||2|
|6||Industrial pollution and bioremediation||1|
|7||Process evaluation, development, quality control and industrial standards.||1|
|8||Industrial experiences – invitation of industrialist for discussion of topic of interest; discussion of industrial attachment and experiences||1|
BCH 451: MICROBIAL BIOCHEMISTRY (2 CREDITS)
|1||Classification and structure of bacterial, fungal and protozoan cells||2|
|2||Nutritional categorization – autotroph, heterotroph, photolithotroph, photoorganotroph, chemolithotroph and chemooganotroph. Auxotrophic organisms – importance||2|
|3||Biosynthesis, structure and function of bacterial and fungal cell wall||2|
|4||Metabolic pathways unique to microorganism: phosphoketolase pathway||2|
|5||Entner – Duodorof pathway, modification of glycolytic and pentose phosphate pathways.||1|
|6||Antibiotics – synthesis and activities. Biochemical basis for antibacterial, antifungal and antiprotozoan action. Antiseptics and disinfections||2|
BCH 461: ADVANCED BIOCHEMICAL METHODS (3 CREDITS)
|1||Exposure of students to operation of available laboratory equipment: Practicals and assignment||1|
|2||Preparation of dissertation/theses. Journal publication and review. Term paper presentation of mini-project in approved format.||2|
|3||Frontiers in Biochemical instrumentation – literature reading in new techniques and instrumentation||1|
|4||Spectroscopic techniques – principles, instrumentation, application of x-rays, gamma-ray resonance, infra-red and Raman spectroscopy, electron spin resonance, nuclear magnetic resonance, circular dichroism and luminometry.||2|
|5||Mass spectrometric techniques – principles, instrumentation and applications. Mass spectrometry, electron impact ionization, chemical ionization, field ionization, ion desorption methods, ion evaporation methods, analyzers, detectors and tandem mass spectroscopy.||3|
|6||Electrochemical techniques – principles, potentiometry, voltametry.||2|
BCH 402: ADVANCED ENZYMOLOGY AND REGULATORY MECHANISMS (3 CREDITS)
|1||Kinetics of ligand binding – Bonding of oxygen to haemoglobin and myglobin. Antigen-Antibody interaction. Hill’s equation, Scatchard plot||1|
|2||Multisubstrate Kinetics – sequential, ping-pong and other mechanisms||1|
|3||Inhibition studies – reversible and irreversible inhibition, substrate and product inhibition – competitive, non competitive, uncompetitive and mixed-type||2|
|4||Chemistry of enzyme catalysis, rate enhancement, binding energy, transition state stabilization, desolvation, induced fit, covalent catalysis, acid-base catalysis, proximity effect, metal ion catalysis||1|
|5||Effect of pH, Optimum pH and pKa value of active site residues, ionization of enzymes, enzyme-substrate complex||1|
|6||Effect of temperature – free energy changes, Equilibrium constant, Arrhenius equation, Vant Hoff’s equation, thermal denaturation of enzyme||1|
|7||Pre-steady state kinetics, instrumentation and techniques||2|
|8||Regulatory enzymes – molecular model for allosterism, committed step enzymes, feedback and feed forward inhibitors and cumulative feedback inhibition. Regulation by covalent modification and proteolytic cleavage||1|
|9||Mechanism of catalysis for chymotrypsin, phosphofructokinase, ribonuclease, etc.||1|
|10||Computational Enzymology-Expert Protein Analysis System (http://www.expasy.ch/enzyme)
Enzymology database (http:wrtpincs.anl.gov/EMP/)
Ligand database enzyme structure:
(http: www.biochem.ucl.ac.uk/bsm/enzymes/index-html)Analysis of enzyme kinetic data
BCH 412: SPECIAL TOPICS IN BIOCHEMISTRY (2 CREDITS)
|A reading list is given to students at the beginning of the semester. An examination question includes 30% BCH 411, Practical Manuals 25%, Computational Biochemistry 5%, Historical Perspective of Biochemistry 10%, Biochemical Reasoning 10% and Concepts in Biochemistry 10% objective question into 100 in number.|
BCH 422: ADVANCED CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY (3CREDITS)
|1||Biochemical tests and diagnosis – basis or uses, interpretation, factors affecting tests, variations, types of specimens for tests. Specimen preservation and handling||1|
|2||Diagnostic enzymes – causes of release of enzymes and plasma enzymes of clinical importance.||1|
|3||Liver disease – tests used to assess liver diseases, E.g., liver function tests, bilirubin production and metabolism. Jaundice types||2|
|4||Metabolic disorders – diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, glycogen storage disease and obesity||2|
|5||Disorders of lipid metabolism – lipoprotein metabolism and diseases associated with lipid metabolism||2|
|6||Renal diseases – clearance tests, renal failure – pre-renal, intrinsic, acute, post-renal and chronic renal failures. Nephritic syndrome and causes. Electrolyte metabolism||I|
|7||Gastrointestinal tract diseases – stomach function tests, pentagastrin and gastrin tests. Pancreatic function tests – direct and indirect tests. Malabsorption – causes and diagnosis||1|
|8||Reproduction – male and female sex hormones, puberty, menopause, amenorrhea, hirsutism, pregnancy and infertility, contraceptives||1|
|9||Thyroid disorders – functions, tests and disorders||1|
|10||Biochemistry of Paediatrics and Geriatrics – prenatal diagnosis||1|
BCH 432: IMMUNOCHEMISTRY AND IMMUNOLOGY (3 CREDITS)
|1||Innate and acquired immunity – features, mechanisms and determinants||1|
|2||Cells and organs of the immune system. Evolution of the immune system||1|
|3||Antigens – antigenic determinants, haptens, immunogens||1|
|4||Antibody structure and function – classification, polyspecific and monoclonal||1|
|5||Lymphocytes – isolation and function. Antigen-antibody interaction – characteristics, precipitation, lattice theory, agglutination and haemagglutination||1|
|6||Detection of antigen-antibody reaction – immunodiffusion, immunoelectrophoresis, fluorescence quenching, radioimmunoassay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, fluorescent antibody technique||3|
|7||The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC), MHC restriction||1|
|9||The complement system and its activation. Hypersensitivities. Immunologic tolerance, autoimmunity and immunodeficiency||2|
|11||Immunology of parasitic diseases||2|
BCH 442: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND GENETIC ENGINEERING (3 CREDITS)
|1||Mutations, site directed mutagenesis, the environment and mutagenesis, Ames test, Cancers||2|
|2||Recombinant DNA Technology – DNA library, cDNA library, methods of engineering new products||2|
|3||The cell cycle and cell death – mitosis, mitotic phases, apoptosis and meiosis, regulation of cell cycle, oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes||2|
|4||Molecular medicine – the human genome. Structural organization, proteomics, monogenic and polygenic disorders, pre-natal diagnosis, viral infections, gene therapy||2|
|5||Molecular motor proteins and functions. Structure of molecular motors and accessory proteins, formation of motile assemblies in cells. Functional properties of the biological machine||2|
|6||Mechanism of protein degradation. Ubiquitination and proteosome, autophagy. Proteolytic enzymes – specificities and functions||2|
|7||Frontiers in cell and molecular biology – current literature and discussions||2|
BCH 452: BIOCHEMICAL PHARMACOLOGY (3 CREDITS)
|1||Drug metabolism – phases, drug metabolizing enzymes and factors affecting metabolism||3|
|2||Drug distribution – bioavailability, drug reservoirs: plasma protein and tissue binding, redistribution, blood-brain barrier, foetal-placental barrier||1|
|3||Excretion – renal, biliary and faecal excretion. Excretion by other routes – sweat, saliva, breast milk||1|
|4||Pharmacokinetic parameter, kinetics of drug absorption and elimination, clearance, volume distribution, half-life and route bioavailability||3|
|5||Dosage regimens – maintenance, loading and individualizing doses. Factors that determine relationship between prescribed drug dosage and drug efficacy||2|
BCH: 499 UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH PROJECT (2 CREDITS)
|Research problems involving laboratory work in an area of interest. Instructor/ Supervisors are assigned to students. Research is to be carried out in the first and second semesters of the final year||15|