Department of Applied Microbiology and Brewing

DEPARTMENT OF APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY AND BREWING

 

YEAR ONE:        FIRST SEMESTER

S/NoCourse CodeCourse TitleTotal Credits
 

1

 

GSS 101

General Courses

Use of English I

 

2

2MAT  101General Mathematics3
3BIO 101General Biology I3
4PHY 101General Physics I3
5CSC 101Introduction to Computer Programming I3
  TOTAL 14

 

 

YEAR ONE:    SECOND SEMESTER

S/NoCourse CodeCourse TitleTotal Credits
1GSS 102Use of English II2
2MAT 102General Mathematics II3
3BIO 102General Biology II3
4PHY 102General Physics II3
5CSC 102Introduction to Computer Programming 23
  TOTAL  14

 

 

YEAR TWO:                       FIRST SEMESTER

S/NoCourse CodeCourse TitleTotal Credits
1GSS 107Nigerian People and Culture2
2GSS 105Humanities2
3ICH 101Basic  Organic Chemistry2
4ICH 111Genetics I2
5BUS 101

 

ECO 201

Introduction To Business I

OR

Principles of Economics

3

 

3

  TOTAL            13

 

 

 

 

YEAR TWO:           SECOND SEMESTER

S/NoCourse CodeCourse TitleTotal Credits
1GSS 106Social Sciences2
2ICH 102Basic Physical Chemistry2
3ICH 112Basic Practical Chemistry2
4AMB 111Introductory Microbiology and Brewing2
5AMB 231Medical Parasitiology2
6BUS 102

 

ECO 202

Introduction to Business II

 OR

Principles of Economics

3

 

 

  TOTAL            13

 

 

YEAR THREE:  FIRST SEMESTER

S/NoCourse CodeCourse TitleTotal Credits
1ICH 201General Organic Chemistry I2
2ICH 221General Physical Chemistry I2
3ICH 231Analytical Chemistry2
4ZOO 201Invertebrate Biology3
5AMBGeneral Microbiology I2
  TOTAL      11

 

 

YEAR THREE:  SECOND SEMESTER

S/NoCourse CodeCourse TitleTotal Credits
1ICH 202Basic Organic Chemistry II2
2BCH 102General Biochemistry3
3AMB 212General Microbiology Laboratory2
4AMB 222General Microbiology II2
5STA  202Statistical for Biological Sciences3
  TOTAL 13

 

 

YEAR FOUR:      FIRST SEMESTER

S/NoCourse CodeCourse TitleTotal Credits
1BCH 371 Biochemical Instrumentation and Techniques3
2AMB 321Food Microbiology I2
3AMB 301Microbial Genetics and Molecular Biology2
4AMB 411Microbial Physiology and Metabolism2
5BCH 201Introductory Biomolecular Chem.3
  TOTAL 12

 

 

YEAR FOUR:      SECOND SEMESTER

S/NoCourse CodeCourse TitleTotal Credits
1BCH 232Physiological Chemistry2
2AMB 232Principles of Brewing Science And Technology2
3AMB 341Immunology3
4AMB 311Soil Microbiology2
5AMB 422Food Microbiology II2
  TOTAL         11

 

 

 

YEAR FIVE:       FIRST SEMESTER

S/NoCourse CodeCourse TitleTotal Credits
1AMB 351Pathogenic Bacheriology3
2AMB 361Industrial Microbiology I2
3AMB 431Virology2
4AMB 461Pharmaceutical Microbiology2
5AMB 481Microbial Plant Pathology and Control of Pests2
  Brewing Science Option 
5AMB 401Hops and Wort Treatment2
6AMB 492Practical Brewing2
  TOTAL             11

 

 

YEAR FIVE:       SECOND SEMESTER

S/NoCourse CodeCourse TitleTotal Credits
1AMB 331Biochemistry of Malting and Brewing2
2AMB 421Brewing Microbiology2
3AMB 412Analytical and Quality Control Microbiology3
  Applied Microbiology Option 
4AMB 471Pathogenic Mycology2
5AMB 462Principles of Epidemiology and Public Health2
  Brewing Science Option 
4AMB 402Brewing Plant Data and Laboratory Analysis2
5AMB 482 Brewing House Contamination Hygiene and Safety Measures2
  TOTAL11

 

 

YEAR SIX:          FIRST SEMESTER

S/NoCourse CodeCourse TitleTotal Credits
1AMB 490Seminar in Microbiology and Biotechnology1
2AMB 441 Industrial Microbiology II3
3AMB 451 Environmental  Microbiology2
4AMB 432 Techniques in Microbial Biotechnology2
  Applied Microbiology Option 
5AMB 452Diagnostic Microbiology2
  Brewing Science Option 
6AMB 491Post Fermentation Techniques2
  TOTAL10

 

 

YEAR SIX:          SECOND SEMESTER

S/NoCourse CodeCourse TitleTotal Credits
1AMB 499Research Project in Microbiology and Biotechnology4
2AMB 442Industrial Microbiology III3
  Applied Microbiology Option 
3 AMB 472Microbial Ecology2
  Brewing Science Option2
4AMB 444 Malting and Adjunct Technology2
  TOTAL                                                                 10

 

 

 

 

 

COURSE DESCRIPTION FOR APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY

AMB 111: INTRODUCTORY MICROBIOLOGY AND BREWING (2 CREDITS)

PRE REQ.: BIO 101.

Microbial cell types-Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes; bacterial cell structure and function. The biology of bacteria, fungi, protozoa, algae and viruses. Ecological relationship and the role of microorganisms in natural and special environments such as soil water, milk, food industry and in disease. Definition and scope of

Brewing Science, interrelationship with other sciences, principles and application of Brewing Sciences in dealing with beer production, its supply, quality and safety. Physiology and biochemistry of cereals used in dealing with beer production, its supply quality and safety.

Physiology and biochemistry of cereals used in brewing: Barley; sorghum, maize, rice, millet, hops. Carrier opportunities for brewing sciences.

 

AMB 221: GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY I (2 CREDITS)

PRE REQ.: BIO 101, AMB 111.

Principles of microbial taxonomy. Phylogenic and artificial classification. Numerical taxonomy. Use of molecular biology in microbial taxonomy. Role of culture collections. Fine structure of prokaryotic cell. Detailed, classification of bacteria and blue-greenalgae. Ecology and characterization of various genera of bacteria.

 

AMB 231: MEDICAL PARASITOLOGY (2 CREDITS)

PRE REQ.: BIO 101, B10 102.

A survey of animal/plant parasites including the structures, life cycle, parasitic adaptations, host specificity and susceptibility. Geographical distribution, prevention and control. Physiology andmetabolism of some selected parasites. Immunology of parasites. Immunology of parasitic infections. Economic importance of parasites.

 

AMB 212: GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY LABORATORY (2 CREDITS)

PRE REQ.: AMB 111, AMB 221.

Techniques employed in culturing of microorganisms. Gram staining, and other staining techniques. Techniques employed in the study of microbial physiology and. metabolism. Motility studies techniques will also be emphasized.

 

AMB 222: GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY 11(2 CREDITS)

PRE REQ.: AMB 111, AMB 221.

Taxonomy of eukaryotic microorganisms. Fungi: Physiology and cell structure. Classification, ecology and economic importance of fungi.

Algae: Structure and physiology. Classification, ecology and economic importance. Protozoa: Form, life cycle and. nutrition.

Classification of protozoa Physiology, ecology and classification of slime moulds.

 

AMB 232: PRINCIPLES OF BREWING SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (2 CREDITS)

PRE REQ.: AMB 111, 221 and 222.

Outline of malting and brewing. Definition of malting, processes involved in malting. Definition of brewing. Milling and mashing; boiling with hops, wort cooling and fermentation. Beer processing, types of beer. Other beverages and allied products.(soft drinks production, wine production, spirits production). The brewing industry. Barley: the barley plant, barley cultivation and harvesting, evaluation and purchase of malted barley, nests in stored barley andmalt. Sorghum: Taxonomy, cultivation, harvesting, evaluation and purchase, other local cereals used in brewing, physiological aspects of malted barley and other local cereals.

 

AMB 301: MICROBIAL GENETICS AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY              (2 CREDITS)

PRE REQ.: AMB 111, 221, 222 and BIO 201.

Brief review of classical genetics. The genetics of fungi, bacteria and viruses. Bacterial transformation, conjugations and transduction.

Extra-chromosomal DNA (plasmids and episomes).Chromosome and gene mapping. Evidence of DNA as a genetic material. Mutation in microorganisms, natural selection and adaptation. Regulatory mechanisms of microorganism. Genetic code. Elements of genetic engineering.

 

 

AMB 311: SOIL MICROBIOLOGY             (2 CREDITS)

PRE REQ.: AMB 111,212,221 and 222.

Nature of soil components, texture, profile and soil as a microbial environment. Quantitative determination of soil microorganisms and their ecology, decomposition of organic matter. Nitrogen cycle. Bacterial fertilizers. Transformation of phosphorus, sulphur, iron, pesticides, hydrocarbons etc. Microbial formation of- petroleum.

Plant root/Soil microbes inter-relationship: rhizosphere, mycorrhizae and root pathogens.

 

AMB 321: FOOD MICROBIOLOGY I        (2 CREDITS)

PRE REQ.: AMB 111, 221 and 222.

Microorganisms important in food microbiology, various sources of contamination of food. Principles of food spoilage including factors affecting microbial growth and activity in foods. Principles of food preservation with detailed study on various preservation methods. Contamination, spoilage and preservation of specific food items: Milk and milk products; meat and meat products: fish and fish products; vegetables and fruits, egg and poultry, cereal and cereal products; heated canned foods.

 

AMB 331: BIOCHEMISTRY OF MALTING AND BREWING            (2 CREDITS)

PRE REQ.: AMB 111, BCH 201.

Mashing: Mash composition, ingredients: Adjuncts. Enzymatic reactions; pH. Temperature adjustments; water composition and mashing. Wort composition; wort boiling; chemical reactions during fermentation; Pasteur/crabtree effects; products of fermentation; their effects on beer (quality control), abnormal fermentation. High gravity brewing and its advantages. Selection of barley for malting, malting procedures. Biochemistry of malting, air-resting, use of gibberellins and bromate. Abrasion and acidulaton. Malting system, formation of malanoid and dimethyl sulphide in malting. Types of malts. Malt analysis.

 

AMB 341: IMMUNOLOGY            (3 CREDITS)

PRE REQ.: AMB 111, 221, 222and 231.

Historical perspective and scope of immunology, natural and acquired immunity. Role of lymphoid tissues and thymus, and immune responses. Types of immune responses. The reagents in immune reactions. Antigen- Antibody reactions. Mechanism and theories of antibody formation. Structure of antibodies. Structure of antigens. Immunoglobulins and serum proteins. Immunogenicity and Immunogenic specificity. Cytotoxicity and neutralization. Anamnestic response. Hypersensitivity. Immunopathology auto- immunity; tumor and transplantation immunology.

 

AMB 351: PATHOGENIC BACTERIOLOGY (3 CREDITS)

PRE REQ.: AMB 111, 221 and 222.

Representative genera and species of bacteria will be studied with particular reference to their role in pathooenesls of human diseases.  Their virulent factors, clinical course, pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis of selected bacterial diseases will be studied.- Principles of disease control emphasized.

 

AMB 361: INDUSTRIAL MICROBIOLOGY (2 CREDITS)

PRE REQ.: AMB 111, 221 and 222.

Nature of industrial microbiology. Microogranisms of industrial importance. Aspects of the biology of moulds, yeasts, bacteria, actinomycetes and viruses of importance in various fermentations. Culture techniques and maintenance of selected cultures. Mutation, strain selection and development, hybridization. Media formulation and economics. Optimization of fermentation media at laboratory scale. Fermenter design and operation. Antifoams.

 

GIT399: INDUSTRIAL TRAINING (6 CREDITS)

A 6 month industrial attachment in medical or industrial establishments is undertaken during the second semester of the third year.

 

AMB 411:  MICROBIAL PHYSIOLOGY AND METABOLISM (2 CREDITS).

PRE REQ.: AMB 111, 221 and 222.

Anatomy of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells: Comparison of both cell types, The molecular architecture and composition of microbial cells and their methods of study. Informational macromolecules DNA and RNA, proteins and enzymes. Nutrition and cultivation of microorganisms. Growth, reproduction and survival of mtcroorcantsrns. microbial differentiation. Energy yielding metabolism: Nitrogenous compounds: Lipids and other organic compounds, Bacterial and algal photosynthesis. Bioenergetics: ATP; election transport system. Biosysthesis of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. Purine and pyrimidine synthesis, of tetrapyrolles, terpenesand B- group vitamins. Regulation of metabolism.

 

AMB 421: BREWING MICROBIOLOGY (2 CREDITS)

PRE REQ.: AMB 111, 221, 222and ICH 101.

Brewing yeasts: chemical composition especially of cell wall and relationship to flocculation; fining and head formation mechanism of flocculation, laboratory measurement. Mechanism of fining, yeast genetics and handling techniques, improvement of brewing strains, hybridization, ethanol contaminants of pitching yeast, methods. Assessment of various selective media. Determination of yeast viability. Microbiological analysis of beer.

 

AMB 431: VIROLOGY (2 CREDITS)

PRE REQ.: AMB 111, 221and 222.

Systematic classification of viruses, general characteristics, growth and reproduction, viral variations, and morphology. Methods of viral cultivation and identification with special reference to tissue culture will be introduced. Attention will be given to the viruses pathogenic to man and animals with emphasis on virulence, types of diseases produced, methods of control. The bacteriophage will be used in some of the laboratory practical to demonstrate the characteristics of the viruses. Representative animal viruses will also be studied in the laboratory to demonstrate the nature of viral virulence. Methods of viral cultivation and identification will be studied.

 

AMB 441: INDUSTRIAL MICROBIOLOGY II (3 CREDITS)

PRE REQ.: AMB 361

Biological, chemical and physical aspects of fermentation .Instrumentation and process control. Equipment used in fermentation industries. Agitation and aeration theoretical and applied aspects. Aspects of chemical engineering. Batch versus continuous culture. Industrial sterilization. Extracellular enzyme recovery techniques. Ezyme Characterization method.

 

AMB 451: ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY (2 CREDITS)

PRE REQ.: AMB 111, 411 and 311.

Microorganisms in our environment viz air, water, soil etc waste disposal and role of microorganisms. Ecology of microorganisms in water. Pollution and self purification of water. Diseases transmitted by water. Microorganisms in ecosystem. Biological oxygen demand. Test for sewage and water techniques for microbiological examination of water. Historical development of petroleum microbiology. Microbial corrosion. Microbial deterioration of such petroleum products as asphalt, domestic fuel oils, and jet aircraft fuel. Role of microorganisms in oxidation and elimination of petroleum and petrochemical spills. Microbial oxidation of hydrocarbons. Microbial products from hydrocarbon fermentations.

 

AMB 461: PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLOGY (2 CREDITS)

PRE REQ.: AMB 111, 221, 222and471.

Types of disinfectants and their mode of action. The chemistry of synthetic chemotherapeutic agents and antibiotics. Production and synthesis of antibiotics and anti-microbial agents. Quality control of pharmaceutical products. Concepts of growth and death in microorganisms. The mode of action, sensitivity testing of anti- microbial agents, mechanisms of drug resistance and sensitivity by microorganisms.

 

AMB 471: PATHOGENIC MYCOLOGY (2 CREDITS)

PRE REQ.: AMB 111, 221 and 222.

General characteristics of pathogenic fungi especially in their relationship to diseases. Principles of infection, pathogenesis and immunity, emphasis on mycological techniques for laboratory diagnosis. Principles of disease control are emphasized.

 

AMB 481: MICROBIAL PLANT PATHOLOGY AND PEST CONTROL (2 CREDITS)

PRE REQ.: AMB 211, 221 and 222.

The course covers the history of plant pathology, non-parasitic diseases of plants, bacterial diseases, fungal diseases and nematode diseases. Also to be covered are diseases incited by viruses, relationship of environment of diseases, development, and host parasite interactions. Methods of diseases control will also be covered as well as phaneroganic parasitic diseases. Review of chemical pesticides organochlorines, organophosphates and carbonates. History of the principles andpractice of microbial control of agricultural and public health pests. Taxonomy and bionomics of the entomopathogens viruses rickettsiae, bacteria, protozoa, fungi, nematodes and predators. Methods of isolation of the entomophathogens from natural environments. Pilot and large scale production/development of bio-insecticides. Application of bio- insecticides. Safety test for microbial control agents against man, animals and other non-target organisms. Current status and prospects of microbial control.

 

AMB401: HOPSAND WORT TREATMENT (2 CREDITS)

Hop cultivation, hop picking and drying and hop products. A physical evaluation of hops, hops chemistry, hop yield and resin content, hop essential oils. Decomposition of hop resins and essential oils from hops. Influence of hops resins and essential oils on finished beer. Methods of imparting hops character to beer wort boiling (Stabilization, flavour and colour reactions, coagulation, concentration, hop reactions). Wort filtrations, wort clarification, wort aeration and cooling. The whirlpool tank.

 

AMB 491: POST FERMENTATION TECHNIQUES (2 CREDITS)

Secondary fermentation yeast content regulation, priming, carbonation of beer through secondary fermentation. Other additions for flavour enhancement. Chilling, filtration, bright beer tank (BBT), removal of common beer defects, haze, acetyl, sediments, flat taste, gushing, excessive bitterness, foam formation, importance and causes. Other additives to conditioning tanks. Clarification, stocks law, types of equipment for clarification, biological stabilization and its advantages, packaging, instrumentation, cooling systems, process engineering and technology.

 

AMB 444: MALTING AND ADJUNCT TECHNOLOGY (2 CREDITS)

Selection of barley, sorghum, maize for malting and malting procedures. Biochemistry of malting, air-resting, use of gibberellins and bromate, abraision and acidulation. Malting enzymes, formation of melanoid, dimethyl sulphide in malting, types of malts and malt analysis. Modern and traditional methods of milling dry milling and wet milling. Effects of milling on brewing qualities, preparation of adjuncts and types of adjuncts.

 

AMB 442: INDUSTRIAL MICROBIOLOGY III (3 CREDITS)

PRE REQ.: AMB 361 and 441.

Development and prospects of enzyme technology. Biotechnology uses of enzymes as microorganisms in waste utilization. Production of industrial solvents, organic acids, amino acids and vitamins. Steroid transformation. Microbial insecticides. Production of rhizobia as legume inoculants. Biodeterioration of industrial materials. Patent and patent laws. Biochemistry of industrial fermentation.

 

AMB 422: FOOD MICROBIOLOGY II (2 CREDITS)

PRE REQ.: AMB 111, 221, 222 and 321.

Food fermentation: Biochemistry and Microbiology of fermented Nigerian foods and beverages such as garri, ogi, palm wine, burukutu/pito, too-too etc., Single cell protein Food in relation to diseases. Food poisoning: Food interactions and infections a detailed study; Investigation of food borne diseases outbreaks. Microbiological specifications for foods. Assessment of microbiological quality of foods indicator organisms. Food sanitation, control and inspection agents.

 

AMB 412: ANALYTICAL AND QUAUTY CONTROL MICROBIOLOGY (3 CREDITS)

PRE REQ.: AMB441 and 461.

Microorganisms as reagents in quantitative analysis. Selection of test organisms for assays (antibiotics, amino acids, vitamins etc). Responses, of microorganisms used in assays. Obtaining and measuring responses. Preparation of assay samples. Methods of assays. Interpretation of results. Aspects of microbiological standards and specifications. Water quality. Health of personnel.

 

TECHNIQUES IN MICROBIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY (2 CREDITS)

Definition of Biotechnology and its applications in medicine, food, microbial and plant genetics. Safety procedures laboratory code of practice. Safe handling of enzymes in the Biotechnology laboratory. Pipettes and standard laboratory equipment handling and. calibration. Solution chemistry dilutions and concentrations. Spectrophotometry, principle of colorimetry, absorptiometry, and visual instruments (e.g. Lovibond comparator). Plasmid isolation: mini and maxi preparation of plasma ids from E.coli: Mini and maxi preparation of genomic DNA from plants and humans. Purification, concentrations and quantification of DNA, (plasmids).Concept of restriction and modification, restriction endonucleases.DNA sequencing and gel electrophoresis. Southern transfer (hybridization).Transformation procedures for prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Polymerase chain reaction (peR) techniques. Protein analysis. Enzyme analysis.

 

AMB 452: DIAGNOSTIC MICROBIOLOGY (2 CREDITS)

PRE REQ.: AMB 222, 431 and 471

Laboratory procedures for isolation and identification of microorganisms from patients. Serological diagnostic techniques.

 

AMB 462: PRINCIPLES OF EPIDEMIOLOGY AND PUBLIC HEALTH (2 CREDITS)

PRE REQ.: AMB 351, 431 and 471.

Statistical applications of epidemiology. Nature of epidemiological investigations, Spectrum of infections. Latency of infections. Multifactorial system in epidemics. Zoonoses, Biological products for immunization. Recommended immunization schedules. International control of infectious diseases.

 

AMB 472: MICROBIAL ECOLOGY (2 CREDITS)

Microbes and ecological theory. Principle of microbial ecology. Environmental conditions influencing the ecosystem’s populations. Microbial succession in different ecosystems. Symbiosis in the microbial world: – Positive (mutualism synergism, commensalisms, etc). Negative (parasitism, competition, predation, etc).Ecology of microorganisms in fresh water, soil and air. Microorganisms in our environments. Biogeochemical cycling of key biological components / essential elements nitrogen, carbon, phosphorus and sulphur.

AMB 402: BREWING PLANT DATA AND LABORATORY ANALYSIS (2CREDITS)

Statistical analysis of plant data, measurement of variation, classification of sampled data, central tendency, dispersion, range, variance, standard deviation, construction of frequency distribution, control charts, sampling and sampling plants, evaluation of taste tests. Interpretation of laboratory analyses. Accuracy of methods, beer analysis. Original extract colour, apparent extract, real extract, alcohol by weight and volume, protein, reducing sugars, iodine reaction, bitterness units, iron, sulphur dioxide, copper, acidity, pH, air content carbon dioxide, foam and corrective data. Energy conservation in the brewing process.

 

AMB 482: BREWHOUSE CONTAMINATION, HYGIENE & SAFETY MEASURES (2 CREDITS)

PRE REQ.: AMB 401 and 491.

Specific hazards: Explosive atmosphere, activated carbon, toxic atmosphere, carbon dioxide, ammonia, zone. Mechanical hazards: lockout procedures, tank or vessels entry procedures. Slip and fall, protective clothing and equipment, eye protection. Microbial contaminants including bacteria, yeasts, moulds. Their sources and incidence during the brewing process. Their Influences on the brewery raw materials, wortfermentation, conditioning and dispensing, non-microbial contamination.

 

AMB 492: PRACTICAL BREWING (2)

Intensive laboratory exercises in beer, wine and liquor production. Introduction to business management and product control.