Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry

  • DEPARTMENT OF PURE AND INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY

 

YEAR ONE: FIRST SEMESTER

S/NCOURSE CODECOURSE TITLECREDIT LOAD
1ICH 101Basic Organic Chemistry2
2GSS 101Use of English 12
3GSS 105Humanities2
4GSS 107Nigerian Peoples and Culture2
5GSS 108Basic Igbo Studies1
6PHY 103Thermal Physics3
7MAT 101General Mathematics 13
TOTAL15

 

 

SECOND SEMESTER

S/NCOURSE CODECOURSE TITLECREDIT LOAD
1ICH 102Basic Physical Chemistry2
2GSS 102Use of English II2
3GSS 106Social Sciences2
4GSS 109Basic Igbo Studies1
5PHY 102General Physics II3
6MAT 102General Mathematics II3
TOTAL13

 

YEAR TWO: FIRST SEMESTER

S/NCOURSE CODECOURSE TITLECREDIT LOAD
1BIO 101General Biology 13
2CSC 101Introduction to Computer Programming and Language3
3ICH 111Basic Inorganic & Gen. Chem.2
4MAT 201Linear Algebra I3
5PHY 201Elementary Modern Physics3
TOTAL14

 

 

SECOND SEMESTER

S/NCOURSE CODECOURSE TITLECREDIT LOAD
1ICH 112Practical Chemistry2
2BIO 102General Biology II3
3PHY 202Electronic Circuit and Electronics3
4MAT 202Elementary Differential Equation3
5CSC  102Introduction to. Comp. Programme & Lang. II3
TOTAL14

 

 

YEAR THREE: FIRST SEMESTER

S/NCOURSE CODECOURSE TITLECREDIT LOAD
1ECO 101Introduction to Economics2
2STAT 101Intro. To Statistics2
3ICH 201General Organic Chemistry I2
4ICH 211General Inorganic Chemistry2
5ICH 221General Physical Chemistry I2
6ICH 231Analytical Chemistry2
7ICH 241Practical Organic Chemistry I2
8ICH 251Practical Inorganic Chemistry I2
TOTAL16

 

SECOND SEMESTER

S/NCOURSE CODECOURSE TITLECREDIT LOAD
1ICH 202General Organic Chemistry2
2ICH 212Chemistry of Representative Elements I2
3ICH 222Chemistry of Representative Element II2
4ICH 232Physical Chemistry2
5ICH 242Non-Spectra Analytical Technique2
6ICH 252Practical Physical Chemistry2
7ICH 262Practical Inorganic Chemistry2
TOTAL14

 

 

YEAR FOUR: FIRST SEMESTER

S/NCOURSE CODECOURSE TITLECREDIT LOAD
1ICH 301Mechanism or Organic Reactions2
2ICH 311Stereo and Carbohydrate Chemistry2
3ICH 321Polyfunctional and Protein Chemistry2
4ICH 331Heterocyclic Chemistry2
5ICH 341Chemistry of Transition Element and Non-aqueous Solvent2
6ICH 351Chemical Kinetics and Thermodynamics2
TOTAL12

 

SECOND SEMESTER

S/NCOURSE CODECOURSE TITLECREDIT LOAD
1ICH 399SIWES6

 

 

YEAR FIVE: FIRST SEMESTER

S/NCOURSE CODECOURSE TITLECREDIT LOAD
1ICH 361Introduction to Polymer Science2
2ICH 371Resources of Industry2
3ICH 381Unit Operation2
4ICH 391Practical Organic Chemistry II2
5ICH 401Natural Product Chemistry2
6ICH 411Co-ordination Chemistry2
TOTAL12

 

SECOND SEMESTER

S/NCOURSE CODECOURSE TITLECREDIT LOAD
1ICH 402Organic Synthesis2
2ICH 412Organometallic Chemistry2
3ICH 422Quantum and Statistical Mechanics2
4ICH 432Molecular Spectroscopy2
5ICH 442Physics and Chemistry of  Surfaces2
TOTAL10

 

YEAR SIX: FIRST SEMESTER

S/NCOURSE CODECOURSE TITLECREDIT LOAD
1ICH 421Bonding and Molecular Structure3
2ICH 431Chemical Kinetics & Catalysis2
3ICH 441Electrochemistry2
4ICH 451Atomic Structure and Quantum Chemistry2
5ICH 461Spectral Analytical Techniques3
6ICH 471Chemistry of Heavy Inorganic Chemicals2
TOTAL14

 

SECOND SEMESTER

S/NCOURSE CODECOURSE TITLECREDIT LOAD
1ICH 452Radio & Nuclear Chemistry2
2ICH 462Chemical Industry & Environment2
3ICH 472Seminar2
4ICH 499Project4
TOTAL10

 

 

 

COURSE DESCRIPTION

 

ICH 101: Basic Organic Chemistry (2 units)

Introduction

  • Brief Historical background, bonding in organic compounds, the carbon atom, hybridization (sp3, sp2, sp.)
  • Classification of organic compounds
  • Isolation and purification of organic compounds
  • Elemental or qualitative analysis
  • Quantitative analysis
  • Formulae of organic compounds – (empirical, molecular and structural)
  • Structural and stereoisomerisms
  • Functional group and homologous series

 

IUPAC Nomenclature

IUPAC Nomenclature of the  following family of organic compounds: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, halogenoalkanes, alkanols, alkanals, alkanones, alkanoates, acid amides, nitriles and amines, alkanoic acids, acid chlorides and acid anhydrides.

Preparation, Physical and chemical properties of the families listed above.

 

ICH 111: General Basic Inorganic Chemistry 1   (2 units)

Matter: Laws of Chemical combination, stoichiometry of chemical kinetics. Atomic structure and electronic configuration of elements. Electronic theory of valences. Bonding: ionic, covalent. Co-ordinate , metallic, H-bonding and Van der Waal’s forces. Fundamental components of atoms. Stable and unstable particles. Periodic classification of elements. Blocks, rows and groups. General feature of chemistry of s-, p-, d and f-blocks isotopes detection, concentration and separation of isotopes.

Natural and artificial radioactivity stability of nucleus. Fission and fusion. Differences between radioactivity and ordinary chemical reactions. Measurement of radioactivity, decay constant and calculation involving radioactivity.

 

ICH 102: Basic Physical Chemistry (2 units)

The gas laws: Boyle’s law, Charles, the general gas equation, Gay-Lussac’s Law; Gas constant. Dalton’s law of partial pressure, Graham’s law of gaseous diffusion. The Kinetic theory of matter. Derivation of the Kinetic equation. Derivations from the ideal gas law; Van der Waal’s equation, Liquefaction of gases, the Joule-Thompson effect.

Properties and Dilute Solutions:Definition of the following concentration terms; molarity, molality, mole fraction, vapour pressure and lowering of vapour pressure; Raoult’s law; elevation of boiling point, lowering of freezing point; Osmotic pressure.

Introduction to Thermodynamics and Thermochemistry

Definition of the following terms: Systems, state variables, and equilibrium, isothemal and adiabatic processes. The first law of thermodynamics; work done for state changes (PV type).

Thermochemistry: Heat changes; heats of reaction, laws of thermochemistry (Lavoisier and Laplace laws and Hess’ law of constant heat summation). (Applications of the laws in calculations, Bond energy)

Chemical Equilibrium: Chemical equilibrium and reversible reaction. The law of mass action; equilibrium constant, Factors affecting chemical equilibrium, Equilibrium between ions in the solid and liquid phases, solubility and solubility product. Effect of a common ion on solubility and solubility product.

Chemical kinetics: Rate of a chemical reaction; factors affecting the rate of a chemical reaction. Activation energy

Ionic Equilibrium: Electrolytes; Acids and Bases; Bronsted- Lowry, Lewis and Arrhenius theories of acids and bases. pH and Dissociation constant, ionization of water .Hydrolysis, Buffer solution and Buffer capacity.

 

ICH 112: Basic Practical Chemistry (2 units)

Theory and practice of volumetric and qualitative inorganic analysis. Preparation of standard solutions, calculation of molarity and concentrations. Method of dilution of solution and calculation. Redox titration and calculations involved. Test for common anions and identification of SO42-, SO32-, NO3, C032-, CI, Br, INO2-. Test for common cations Fe2+, Fe3+, NH4+, Zn2+, Pb2+, AI3+, alkali and alkaline earth metals. Test for common ions in the first transition series e.g. Mn, Cr, Ni, Cu, etc. Group separation of cations.

 

 

ICH 201: General Organic Chemistry 1 (2 units)

  1. Electronic effects in organic molecules. Electron displacement in molecules, inductive effect; electrometric effect, mesomeric effect and resonance; inductomeric effect, hyper-conjugation mesomerism, tautomerism.
  2. Introduction to reaction mechanism. Breaking of covalent bonds, collision theory of reaction rates, molecularity of a reaction; Reaction Kinetics, Order and molecularity.
  3. Preparation, physical and chemical properties and uses of various classes of organic compounds such as alkanes alkenes, alkynes, halogenoalkenes, alkanols, alkanals, alkanones, and alkanoic acids. Derivatives of alkanoic acids (namely acid chlorides, acid anhydrides, alkanoates and acid amides ),Nitriles and Amines. A mechanistic approach should be used to explain the chemical reactions treated in each case.

 

ICH 202: General Organic Chemistry 11 (2 units)

Alicyclic Hydrocarbons

Preparation properties and uses of cycloalkanes, cycloakenes, cycloalkadienes, Aromatic hydrocarbons, Aromaticity, Properties of aromatic compounds, chemical properties of benzene.

Electrophilic subsitution reactions; detailed mechanisms of the following electrophilic substitution reactions should be studied using benzene as example, Halogenation, nitration, sulphonation, alkylation, acylation, addition, hydrogenation and halogenation.

Effect of substitutions on the reactivity and orientation of electrophilic substitution of benzene. Ortho-, para- and meta directing groups. Reactions of the side chains of alkylbenzenes, ring substitution reactions, addition reactions, and side chain

substitution reactions. Oxidation of the side chain.

 

Polynuclear compounds

Structure, synthesis and reactions of isolated ring systems (diphenyl, diphenylmethane, diphenylstilbene)  structure, synthesis and reactions of naphthalene, anthracene and phenanthrene.

 

ICH 211: General Inorganic Chemistry (2 units)

Detailed treatment of factors that constitute Periodic properties, Ionization energy, electron affinity, electronegativity, chemical bonding: ionic, covalent, metallic bonds, Van der Waal’s forces, the hydrogen bond. Stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric defects. Introduction to molecular orbital and valence bond theories, molecular geometry and hybridization, ionic lattice, lattice energies, the Madelung constant.

 

ICH 212: Chemistry of Representative Elements 1 (2 units)

Electronic structure, general properties and comparative study of hydrogen groups, IA, IIA, IIIA, IVA elements and their compounds. Vertical, cyclic and diagonal relationships between groups and within groups.The hydrides halides nitrates, carbonates, nitrides, chalcon ides, alloys should be treated. Application of some compounds mentioned and methods of production, commercial production where applicable. Inter-group similarity should be identified for some of the compounds.

 

ICH 221: General Physical Chemistry (2 units)

Kinetic Theory: Behaviour of gases and kinetic theory. Ideal and non-ideal behaviour of gases. Derivation of the kinetic theory equation for the pressure of an ideal gas and deduction there from. Molecular and collision. Collision diameter and number. Mean free path, viscosity of a gas . Boltzmann distribution law. Types of average speed, mean velocity, root mean-square velocity and most probable velocity. Equipartition of energy. Brownian motion.

Chemical Thermodynamics: Nature and scope of thermodynamics, important definitions, the first law of thermodynamics, calorimetry, standard molar enthalpies of formation and the determination of standard molar enthalpy for chemical reactions form tables of these, Heat capacities. The Carnot Cycle.

 

ICH 222: Chemistry of Representative elements 11 (2 units)

Electronic structures, general properties (physical and chemical) and comparative study of groups VA, VIA, VIIA and inert gases. The nature of the elements, allotropy, the hydrides, halides and oxohalides, the oxides, extraction of some elements. Application of some compounds and method of production. The halogens interhalogen and pseudolagens. Origin of the reaction of inert gases, compounds and different reactions, complex formation and structures of the complexes and hybridization.   

 

 

ICH 231: Analytical Chemistry (2 units)

  1. Meaning and importance of Analytical Chemistry, Expression of analytical results, preparation of solutions.
  2. Theory of errors in quantitative analysis, theory of sampling, detection and elimination of errors.
  3. Statistical treatment of data including mean, precision, accuracy and standard deviation. Theoretical basis of quantitative inorganic analysis. Separation methods including classification.
  4. Gravimetric analysis, volumetric method of analysis including Acid-Base Equilibra, Complexometric titration and Redox titration.
  5. Electro analytical methods of chemical analysis .Introduction to electrode processes and electrode potential. Conductometric methods of titration, potentiometric titration.

 

ICH 232: General Physical Chemistry 11 (2 units)

Solutions: Colligative properties of solution – lowering of vapour pressure, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point and osomotic pressure. Molecular weight determination by these methods. Ideal solution causes of deviation from ideality: Raoult’s and Henry’s laws.

Solid state laws :An elementary introduction. The growth and formation of crystals, the crystal systems. Miller indices Lattices and crystal structures, symmetry properties the symmetry elements of crystals.

Changes of state:

Phases: components; degrees of freedom, general equilibrium between phases, the phase rule systems of the components water. The Clapeyron Clausius equation.

 

ICH 241: Practical organic Chemistry (2 units)

Experimental determination of melting points and boiling points. Separation of organic compounds by distillation, fractional distillation, solvent extraction, purification of organic compounds by recrystalization. Elemental analysis for N, S and the halogens. Solubility classification and identification of functional groups. Preparation of derivatives and determination of physical constants.

 

ICH 242: Non-spectra Analytical Techniques (2 units)

Refractometry, interferometry, electrogravimetric, polarography, amperometry, conductometry, potentiometry, separation methods such as solvent extraction, Chromatrography; column, GLC, TLC, Automatic and semi automatic analyzers, sequence of operations, advantages, continuous analyzers.

 

ICH 251: Practical Inorganic Chemistry 1 (2 units)

Qualitative analysis of mixtures of radicals including interfering radicals and insoluble salts. Quantitative analysis (volumetric and gravimetric analysis). Determination of solubilities, solubility products and stability constants of inorganic compounds.

 

ICH 252: Practical Physical Chemistry (2units)

Selected experiments in Physical Chemistry in the areas of electrochemistry; reaction kinetics, phase equilibria, calorimetry, and spectrophotometry.

 

ICH 262: Practical Inorganic Chemistry 11 (2 units)

Analysis of complex materials like alloys, cements ores. Preparation and characterization of inorganic compounds. Ion-exchange chromatography. Solvent extraction, conductometric and potentiometric measurements.    

 

ICH 301: Mechanisms of Organic Reaction (2 units)

Basic concepts, brief view of orbital, hybridization and bonding. Classification of reagents and reactions. Investigations of reaction mechanisms by kinetic and non- kinetic methods. Energy profiles and reaction rates.

Application of above to the various classes of reactions outlined below.

Displacement   Reactions

Nucleophilic substitution at saturated carbonation: SN1 and SN2   mechanisms; effect of structure and solvent; stereochemical manifestation of the different mechanisms. Neighbouring group participation and molecular rearrangement.

Electrophilic substitution at saturated carbon atoms.  SE1 and SE2 mechanisms. Electrophilic aromatic substitution: effects of substitutent on reactivity and orientation of further substitution; ionic mechanisms for nitration, halogenations and sulphonation.   Ortho, para ratios.

Nucleophilic aromatic substitution: SN1, and SN2, benzyne mechanisms, smiles rearrangement etc.

Elimination and addition reactions

a and b elimination: E1 and E2 mechanisms, Saytzef and Hofmann rules; Dehydration and dehydrohalogenation. Addition to C-O, C-N and C-C multiple bonds.

Esterification and hydrolysis

Mechanisms of acyl oxygen   and alkyl oxygen fissions,

Tautomerism: Types and theories of tautomerism. Estimations of enol content in keto- enol tautomerism.

 

ICH311: Stereo and Carbohydrate Chemistry (2units) Carbohydrate Chemistry: Definition, sources and origin of carbohydrates,

Classification into simple sugar – Saccharides and polysaccharides.

Simple sugars – Aldoses and ketoses, monosaccharides, disaccharides ,trisaccharides.

Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides – starch, glycogen, cellulose, inulin-structure, identification and uses.

Chemistry of glucose – reactions, mutarotations, epimerization, anomers, ascending and descending series; Aldose to ketose and vice versa, glycosides. Conversion of cellulose to textile fibres – vicose rayon, cellulosetrinitrates, cellulose acetates, cupraamonium process etc. Stereochemistry: Definition of stereoisomerism, study of conformational analysis in Acyclic and cyclic compounds, stability of cycloalkanes – small to large rings and the decalins.

Geometrical isomerism (cis/trans isomerism) – Explanation, examples especially in unsaturated disubstituted aliphatic and cyclic compounds–butanedioic acid and derivatives, halogeno-compounds, properties of cis-trans isomers: Determination of configurations in geometrical isomers.

Optical isomerism: Definition and causes due to chirality, enantiomerism (handedness) molecular asymmetry; symmetrical elements and absence of optical isomerism, meso compounds. Examples of optical isomers and properties and diastereomers. Polarimeter and measurement of optical isomerism; specific and observed optical rotation (calculation). Racemic modification and resolutions; configuration including R and S configuration.

 

ICH 321: Polyfunctional and Protein Chemistry (2 units)

Amino acids: classification neutral, basic, acidic. General methods of preparation. Methods of isolation and identification. Reactions due to amino and carboxyl group, direct, ninhydrin, Xanthoproteric and millions reaction. Polypeptides – synthesis, properties, and degradation. Proteins: Simple, conjugated, and denied proteins. Structure – primary, secondary and tertiary. Biosynthesis of proteins and Amino acids. Other polyfunctional compounds. Synthesis, reaction and uses of dicarboxylic acids, hydroxyl acids, a and b unsaturated carbonyl compounds, b, g – unsaturated carbonyl compounds. Unsaturated acids and esters ethyl acetoacetate, hydroxyl aldehydes, hydroxyl ketones, malonates, dialdehydes and diketones.

 

ICH 331: Heterocyclic Chemistry (2 units)

Heterocyclic compounds with one hetero-atom: nomenclature, synthesis structure, properties and reactions of the five membered ring systems – furan, thiophene, pyrrole, six-membered ring system – pyridine and their derivatives.

Heterocyclic compounds with more than one hetro atom – pyrazole, imidazole, oxazole, pyridazine, pyrimidine, pyrazine, thiazine, oxazine and their benzo derivatives. Synthesis reactions and uses (Reference to be made to natural products, vitamins and drugs).

 

ICH 341: Chemistry of Transition Elements and Non-aqueous Solvents (2 units)

Classification and general characteristics of solvents, solute – solvent interactions. Acid base theory and non-aqueous solvent system.

  1. General characteristics of transition elements including electronic configuration, oxidation states, magnetic properties colour and complex formation. Complex formation with ligands emphasizing co-ordination numbers, hybridization and shapes of complexes.
  2. Resemblances among the transition elements discussed in families of transition elements e.g. scandium, Titanium Families. Ferrous metals and platinum metals.
  3. Classification and general characteristics of solvents, solute solvent interactions. Acid-base theory and self ionization of solvents, protic and aprotic solvent, inorganic synthesis in non-aqueous media.

 

ICH 351: Chemical Kinetics and Thermodynamics (2 units)

Nature and scope of kinetics: Meaning and definition of rate of reaction. Factors influencing rates of reactions; rate law; concept of order of a reaction. Examples of reactions with simple orders; Pseudo-order reactions, elementary processes, molecualrity, and stoichiometry. Integrated rate equations for first and second order reactions .

Experimental methods in kinetics : Determination of reaction order  and rate  coefficients . kinetic and reaction mechanisms . The steady state approximation.

Effect of Temperature on Reaction Rate: The Arrhenius equation.

Introduction to collision theory for bimolecular reactions.  Thermochemistry: The second law of thermodynamics, entropy and equilibrium; the third law; the Gibbs function, G = H – TS; Helmoltz function, A= E – TS; standard free energies.  Relationship between free energy and equilibrium.

 

ICH 361: Introduction to Polymer Science (2 units)

Historical development of polymer science, classification of polymers,

definition of terms used in polymer science, names and structures of polymers. Polymerization reactions: addition polymerization, free radical mechanism of kinetics; mechanism and kinetics of cationic and anionic polymerization, co-ordination catalysis, stereoregulation. Ziegler – Natta system; co-polymerization, mechanism and kinetics, polymerization methods. Bulk solution, suspension etc. advantages, and disadvantages, condensation or step growths polymerization. Polymer technology: spinning, calendaring, extrusion, moulding etc.

Polymer characterization,  molecular mass, spectra (nmr), rheology, degradation and stabilization.

 

ICH371: Resources of Industry (2 units)

Origin, occurrence, localization of metallic and non- metallic raw materials. Derivation and processing of non- metallic raw materials to industrials feed stock for the industry. Derivation and processing of starting raw materials (alkenes. aromatics and acetylene) to feedstock for the organic chemistry industry . Energy resource–deferent sources of energy. Inter-conversion of energy from one form to another.

 

ICH381: Unit operation (2 units)

Fluid flow and transportation in the pipes, heat transfer, filtration. Mass transfer operation: humidification, gas absorption and distillation ; solvent extraction, drying , ion-exchange and leaching .   Application of mass, energy and momentum balances and constitutive equation to establish operating parameters and conditions in above listed unit operations.

 

ICH391: Practical Organic Chemistry II (2 units)

Advanced separation and purification techniques. Adsorption chromatography, paper chromatography, ion- exchange chromatography and thin-layer chromatography; preparation and characterization of organic compounds.

Reaction and identification of organic compounds.

 

ICH 401: Natural Product Chemistry  (2 units)

A description of the Biogenetic chart of Natural products; chemistry structure , uses of the following classes of natural products – Terpenes – monoterpenes , sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, sesterterpenes, triterpenes and other polyterpenes.  Carotenoids Fats and Oils(Lipids) –Saponifiable and non-saponfiable lipids are defined, neutral lipids  (fat /oils i.e. triglycerides ) and polar lipids i.e. phospho and glycolipids; classification of oils –drying, semi-drying and non-drying. Chemical analysis of lipids and acid value, saponification value, iodine number, peroxide value, titre value, slip point, unsaponifiable matter . Uses of lipids, extractions and identification.

 

Alkaloids – definition and classification based on family of plants, or chemical moiety of heterocyclic ring, extraction and identification by reagents such as Meyer’s marquis, Draggendorf, and Wagner. Representative alkaloids are discussed such as quinine, conine, hygrine, ergot alkaloids, opium alkaloids, rawolfia (reserpine), tropane (cocaine, hyosamine etc ) alkaloid functional group reactions in these alkaloids are discussed.

 

Steroids –definition and chemistry representative members are discussed –cholesterol, male and female sex hormones, adrenocortical hormones, bile acids. Steroidal saponins are also discussed.

Nuclei acids and macromolecules involved in biogenesis of natural products-acetyl co-enzyme, ATP.

Flavonoids-classifications, identification and uses of the different classes.

Tannins – Hydrolysable and non-Hydrolysable (condensed tannins) uses.

Biogenesis of Natural products – fatty acids, terpenes, steroids, carbohydrate etc.

 

ICH 402: Organic Synthesis (2 units)

Treatment of the following method of importance in organic synthesis (mechanisms should be included): Reduction, oxidation, halogenations alkylation, acylation, aldol condensation. Treatment of the following reactions of historical important in the development of organic synthesis: Michael reaction, Perkin reaction, Claisen Schmidt condensation,    Mannich reaction, Knoevenagel reaction, Wittig reaction, and Stobbe reaction.

 

ICH 411: Co-ordination Chemistry (2 units)

Introduction to Co-ordination Chemistry; definition, recognition, and nomenclature of co-ordination compounds;

Werner’s theory of complex compound formation. Isomerism in complex stereochemistry and applications of complex compounds.

Stabilization of unusual oxidation states by complex formation. Kinetics and mechanization of complex formation. The spectrochemical and nephelauxetic  series , Jahn –Teller distortions. Crystal field theory, ligand field and ligand field stabilization energy.

 

ICH 412: Organometallic chemistry (2 units)

Introduction to Organometallic Chemistry – classification, preparation, structure and reaction of organometallic compounds of the transition elements; alkenyls, alkynes, benzenoids, and cyclopentadienyl metal complexes. The chemistry of Ferreocene and related compounds. The role of organometallic compounds in some catalytic reactions.

 

ICH 421: Bonding and Molecular structure (3 units)

The nature of the chemical bond: homonuclear bond exemplified by H2+, H2 etc; other diatomic molecules. Heteronuclear bond; polarity of bonds; terms that affect polarity such as electronegativity, hybridization, etc modern quantum Chemistry and bonding characteristics in chemical substances. Comparisons with results obtained from valence bond and molecular orbital approximations. Experimental methods of the determination of molecular structure, methods based on polarization phenomena – dipole moment and molecular refraction. Magnetic properties of molecular substance and methods based on these properties: Gouy balance, mass spectrometry and fragmentation patterns.

 

ICH 422: Quantum and Statistical Mechanics (2 units)

Quantum mechanics : Many electron atom; angular momentum and spin; various approximation methods. Hybridization. Quantum mechanics of molecules: the hydrogen molecule ion, etc. Molecular orbital and valance bond theories. The theory of resonance. Molecular symmetry and elements of group theory.

Statistical mechanics

The nature of the problem. Microstates and randomness. Boltzmann statistics. The partition function. The relationship between the partition function and the various thermodynamics quantities, E, H, G, S etc. Some applications of statistical thermodynamics. The heat capacity of gases, liquids and solids, calculation of equilibrium constant. Introduction to Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein statistics.

 

ICH 431: Chemical Kinetics and Catalysis (2 units)

Chemical Kinetics: Theories of reaction rates. The collision theory and the theory of absolute reaction rates; reaction co-ordinates and transition state; molecularity, unimolecular and bimolecular reactions; Eyring equation, chain reactions.

Techniques available for studying surfaces; catalyst surface and structure; physical adsorption, chemisorption, adsorption isotherms: Freundlich Langmuir; relationship between catalyst properties and activity at surfaces; mechanisms of catalyst action, catalyst carriers, promoters few industrial catalysts and association catalytic processes – hydrogenation, oxidation, cracking etc.

 

ICH 432: Molecular Spectroscopy (2 units)

The electromagnetic spectrum; nature of interaction of radiation with molecules. Transition probabilities. The Einstein coefficients. Frequency, shapes and intensity of absorption bands. Theory of rotational, vibrational; vibration – rotation, infrared and Raman, and electronic spectra. Theories of magnetic resonance as related to NMR and ESR.

 

ICH 441: Electrochemistry ( 2 units)

Faraday’s laws; theory of electrolytes. Conductivity measurements; specific conductance, equivalent and ionic conductivities, Kohlrausch law; Arrhenius theory; transport numbers and mobilities.

Simple cells, measurement of chemical potential Debye-Hückel equation, Debye-Hückel-Onsager equation; derivation of these equations. Polarography.

 

ICH 442: Physics and Chemistry of Surfaces (2 units)

Thermodynamics, structural and kinetic factors underlying surface and interfacial phenomena, molecular aspects of phase boundaries, intermolecular forces, surface tension, capillarity and related phenomena, surface activities spreading, wetting, adhesion and related processes; electrical phenomena at interface, survey of importance of surface phenomena in processes such as flotation, detergency, corrosion and catalysis.

 

ICH 451: Atomic structure and Quantum Chemistry (2 units)

Atomic spectra, types and production., spectrum of hydrogen atom, Bohr’s theory, spectra of the alkali and alkaline earth elements, x-ray spectra. Brief history of the development of quantum theory. Basic postulates of the quantum mechanics, the schrődinger wave equation, significance and properties of wave function. The quantum mechanics of simple systems, the free particle, particle in a box, linear harmonic oscillation, rigid rotator, the hydrogen atom.

 

ICH 452: Nuclear and Radio Chemistry (2 units)

Nuclear models, Energetics of nuclear reactions, Decay processes, Natural radioactive series. Nature of radioactive radiation, principles and measurement of radioactivity. Applications of radioactivity/ radiochemical methods. Radiation hazards and precautions.

 

ICH 461: Spectral Analytical Techniques (2 units)

Colorimetry, Flame photometry, spectrophometry (visible UV, IR, NMR), fluorimetry, mass spectrometry, X-ray methods and their applications to the analysis of substance.

The application of UV, IR, NMR and mass spectra in the elucidation of structure of organic compounds.

 

ICH 462: Chemical Industry and the Environment (3 units)

The environment, pollution, nature of environmental disturbance, complexity of the ecological system, air pollution, systems present in unpolluted air, polluted air, relative toxicities of the pollutants, control of atmospheric pollutants such as CO, S02, N0x, hydrocarbons and photochemical oxidants, particulate matter pollution of soil, systems present in non-polluted soil, structure of the soil, minimizing environmental change; acid rain problem, industrial pollutants, methods of treatment, examples from specific industries. Case studies, e.g. disposal of toxic materials at sea, ultimate disposal of industrial wastes for land, fire as a pollutant.

 

ICH 471: Chemistry of Heavy Inorganic Chemicals (2 units)

Development of a process, Pilot plant, continuous and batch processes. Application of physical and inorganic chemistry and economics in large scale production of heavy inorganic chemicals.

Nitrogen industry: ammonia, ammonium sulphate, ammonium nitrate, nitric acid, urea. Sulphur industry, sulphur,sulphuric acid. Chlor Alkali industry; sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide, chlorine, hydrogen, soda ash. Phosphporus industry: phosphorus, phosphoric acid, superphosphate fertilizers and industrial phosphates.

 

ICH 472: SEMINAR

 

ICH 499: PROJECT