Evaluation of Course
Courses shall be evaluated in terms of credit units where a course unit is defined as one lecture/tutorial hour per week or three hours practical class per week throughout the semester. 1 lecture/tutorial hour per week per semester = 1 (one credit unit, 3(three laboratory/studio/workshop hours/week per semester = 1 credit unit. There is an understanding that for one lecture hour a student should put in two hours of individual/private study outside the lecture hour.
Duration of Academic Year and Semester
Each session shall consist of two semesters with a long vocation of between 11 to 12 weeks. Each semester shall have minimum of 17 weeks, 15 of which must be devoted to actual teaching.
Types of Course, Coding and Numbering
Classification of Course offered shall be
(a) Compulsory Courses
(b) Require Courses
(c) GS Courses and
A student is required to choose courses in the above arreas as may be determined by the Department of Architecture.
Courses shall be numbered according to levels i.e. 100 – 400 for undergraduate courses. The first digit of the numbering represents the level of instruction, the second digit area of stress, while the last digit represents the sequence within the subject area.
Each course shall be represented by three (3) code lettering, representing the discipline offering the courses e.g. Law for law or ACC or Accountancy, CAM for Construction Management Practice, ARC for Architecture. GSS is for General Studies.
Course Load of Credit Unit
(a) Full-Time Undergraduate Students – full time student shall be required to register for an approved combination of courses with a minimum total of 30 (thirty) per academic year and a maximum of 48 (forty-eight) units. However, transfer students may register for less to the extent of units brought forward from former discipline.
(b) Where a student fails courses in the two semesters, he/she will be required to register them in the succeeding session. While a student who fails in a course at either of semesters will be required register the particular course as in 7.3.4 (c) so as to make a minimum of 15 (fifteen) units or 30 (thirty units as the case may be.
(c) The affected student could select courses from any level in their department to make up the minimum of 15 (fifteen) units or 30 (thirty) units as the case may be.
(d) If a student has more than 24 (twenty-four) units to take in one semester, say first semester, he/she repeats first semester examinations for two (2) sessions to exhaust those for two (2) sessions to exhaust courses/units.
(e) In any case the affected student will be required to pay full school fees for the sessions and;
(f) The effected student shall apply to senate through the approved channel of communication for permission to register excess units. The number of excess units should be indicated in the applications.
(g) Where a student has excess units less than six (6), the student can resist without adding extra year, but where the excess units is more than six (6), the student s required to pay for a full sessions fees in each case.
METHODOLOGY AND COURSE CONTENTS
In pursuance of the stated philosophy and objective, the Department of Architecture adopts an integrated studio and theory course work approach.
Studio-Work (Architectural Design) Methodology
The studio consists of architectural design programmes, which expose the student to a broad spectrum of architectural tasks confronting the profession in Nigeria. Such tasks cover housing, traditional architecture, rural development planning, Institutional and complex buildings, industrial and agricultural buildings and urban design. The programmes which are primarily based on thorough studies of communities-rural and urban, through critical observation, surveying and documentation, are intended to develop also the skills and techniques in problems recognition, information gathering, analysis, synthesis, design, and evaluation. The exercises through the years vary in magnitude from relatively simple human environmental requirements through buildings requiring mechanical services/to urban planning and landscape design problems that need the use of specialist consultants. Aspects covered in the exercise include Descriptive Geometry, Data Analysis and Synthesis, Architectural Graphics and Lettering, Landscape Design, Site Planning, Structural Detailing and Architectural Design Programming. Data collection is foremost.
Architectural Design is undertaken in every semester for the duration of the educational programme. The student is expected to grapple with technical, social, environmental, aesthetic as well as financial implications of architecture during the exercises. Emphasis is placed upon constructional processes in architectural design. Site visits encourage the study of construction techniques.
In the course of the architectural design programme the student is exposed to criticism and exhibition of his work not only to his year, but also to the Department as a whole. The students are encouraged to work in studios where they constitute a pool of resources for cross fertilization of design ideas and enhancements of staff/student interaction. Portfolio assessments are made open to enable students know early how they are performing. Students are encouraged to use extensive data and other design information available in the Department, university library or elsewhere in their work. The studio work entails extensive design research. Hence, great emphasis is placed upon architectural design as a vehicle for integrating and Appling knowledge in other courses, to specific architectural projects. See chapter five (5) for details.
Theory Courses Methodology
Because of the diverse nature of architecture and the Department’s desire to produce architects who understand the context of their design in the physical, social, cultural, economic and technical terms, the educational programme includes both the art of design as well as utilitarian subjects. However, all these subjects fall within six main areas of study or instruction modules as follows:
- Fine and applied Arts.
- History and Theoretical Studies.
- Building Systems Technology.
- Humanities and Social Studies.
- Environmental Control System.
- Physical Sciences.
Module A: Fine and Applied Arts
The subjects in this module, Free Hand Sketching, Graphic presentation, graphic Communication, Architectural Modelling, Photography, Painting, mosaic and Mural Design, life Drawing, Metal Work, Introduction to Basic Design. Industrial Arts, Ceramic and Glass Design, Surface Design Sculpture, Moulding.
This Module provides the architecture student with the basic experience and skills in art. It aims to develop imagination and creative faculties and to gain confidence in working processes in fine and applied arts. It provides understanding and application of visual communication in art-line, shapes form, colour, texture, proportion, light and shade, etc. these Courses aim at this application of art to architectural design.
Module B: History and Theoretical Studies
The subjects in this module cover History, Theory and Philosophy of Architecture, African Traditional Architecture, Japanese, Islamic and Chinese Architecture, Pre-Colonial Urbanisation in Africa, Restoration and Art History, History of Built Environment, Evolution of Planning Thoughts, Planning Principles and Practice and Architectural Practice and Management European forms are included.
The emphasis in this module is on the understanding of the History, Theory and Philosophy of Architecture. It aims to clarify the scale of values and concepts with which architecture is created. It examines Pre-Colonial recognition of the existence of conceptual resources in its immediate cultural environment. This module provides the foundation on which the student bases his/her creative work.
Module C: Building Systems Technology
The subjects in this module focuses on Building Materials and Construction, Building Structures, Theory of Structures, Advanced Architectural Structures, Architectural Frames, Equipments, Survey, Project planning and Control, Working Drawing and Detailing, Specification Writing, Quantities and Estimation, Building Economics, Costing, Building Maintenance, Management and Real Estate Management.
Studies in Building Systems Technology emphasize the understanding of building components, the structures, the methods of putting them together and the process involved in putting them together to realize an architectural piece. Structural and constructional applications for timber, masonry, reinforced concrete, steel, aluminium, as well as local/traditional materials are examined in various course units within this module. The realisation of an architectural design involves various participants who represent many aspects of the building industry. This module clarifies implementation, cost implication, managerial, as well as various processes that go into the realization of an architect’s concept.
Module D: Humanities and Social Studies
The subjects in this Module cover African Studies, Research Methods, Elements of Economics and Sociology, Psychology of Perception, Property and Contract Law, Human/Spatial Organisation, Development Economics, Peoples and Cultures of Africa, Archaeology, Structure of Rural Communities, Nigerian History, Economic History of Africa and Traditional Industries.
This subject exposes the student of Architecture to the general cultural, historical, psychological, sociological contexts within which architecture is created the Module aims at clarifying some practical implications of design decisions from the point of view of the use the client and the public at large. The student is exposed to the complexities of the human, social and cultural environment in its various dimensions. It enables him/her understand humans historically, culturally and psychologically and to take such factors into account when making design proposals. The module exposes the student to the legal, political and economic framework within which he is expected to operate as an architect.
Module E: Environmental Control Systems
The subjects in this Module cover Urban climatology, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, Natural and Artificial Lighting, Acoustics and Noise Control, Environment Resources Management, Water Supply and Drainage, Electrical, Lighting, Vertical Transport Systems, Security System, etc. The knowledge helps the student to determine space requirement and to integrate services within the fabric of buildings.
Module F: Physical Sciences
The subjects here include General and Foundation Mathematics, Geography, Geology and Physics, Introduction to Computer methods. Application and Programming, Statistical Methods, Soil Mechanics, strength of Materials, probability Theory, mechanics, Chemistry, Analytical Geometry, Calculus, Trigonometry, Materials Science, Cartography and Geology of Nigeria.
Knowledge of physical sciences forms a pre-requisite to a thorough understanding o the techniques required in Architecture. A mastery of basic techniques, skills and principles embodied in the physical sciences are essential for he success of the building industry, Of special significance to present day architectural education is computer literacy. The physical science module provides courses aimed at providing familiarity with skills in the operation and application of computer methods.
The Department of Architecture operates within the Academic Regulations of the University; consequently the conduct of all aspects of academic work in the Department is in accordance with these Regulations. There are departmental regulations related to studio courses, which because of their peculiar nature, are not fully covered by the University’s Regulations. Therefore below are set out details of the conduct of design studio courses required for all levels of the programmes.
Design Studio Regulations
(a) The studio is the centre of student’s academic work in the Department of Architecture. The Studio is always open to students al days of the week.
(b) Studio courses are organised on class-by-class bases, each studio class comprising students of the particular year of the programme, and are under the direction of a Year Master assisted by other studio staffs to be appointed by the Hntwa ead of Department.
(c) All design programmes are issued to each student directly by the Year Master. Furthermore, all projects undertaken as part of design courses are carried out mainly in the studio. The reason for this working together is for esprit de corps develop; there is cross-fertilisation of ideas, and unity of effort results. Group schemes are encouraged in certain projects at all levels of the programme.
(d) Studio courses-Architectural Design and Graphic Communication shall have 3 hours per Unit whereas Visual Communication and Practical Surveying shall have 3 hours per Unit. Studios have 2 hours per Unit whereas Visual Communication and Practical Surveying shall have 3 hours per Unit.
(e) Architectural Design (studio) courses for Levels 200-400 shall be assessed as follows:
(i) On completion of each project, a jury shall be conducted after which marks or grades shall be awarded to each completed work.
(ii) At the end-of the semester a student’s final grade will be an aggregate of all projects already assessed.
(iii) Uncompleted work or unacceptable work shall be regarded as failed and will be reassessed on completion or correction at the end of the semester. Such work will, for purposes of grading, be regarded as re-sits and can only receive a grade if found satisfactory, as the highest grade
(f) In the case of 400 level students, final grades will be subject to External Examiners’ assessments. No new drawings additional to those on which original assessment was made will be considered, except in cases of re-sit. Jury system is a must.
(g) For 100 level – 300 level portfolio assessment shall be at the end of each semester with the Head of Department and Year Masters as assessors. Jury system of no less than five (5) jurors is necessary for each assessment.
Development opportunities and construction abound in our rural communities, but the sudden endowment of nearby urban centres with alluring opportunities and the quest for development have produced rural forms that are completely neglected. The architect, therefore in the face of this situation should strive to provide design solutions that will not only check this ugly trend but envisage design procedure as a total developmental process prompting the integration of several spheres of human endeavour and a holistic understanding of the needs of the society. The Department of Architecture, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, has adopted the “INTEGRATED PROJECTS METHOD (IPM) to prepare her students to assume the numerous services of an Architect. The IPM tends to give the student the effrontery to identity problems rather than being assigned problems to be solved. It also gives the student architect the ability to discover the course of such problems so that his/her effort could be more fruitfully channelled towards prevention rather than solution of these problems.
Integrated Project Method
The students would be required to spend about 2 weeks in the field conducting socio-economic and physical survey of the study area. The data and information collected forms the basis for the studio design work for the rest of the session.
The programme involves documentation, analysis, and synthesis of a planning programme out of which will emerge schematic planning proposals and design of specific projects-domestic and non domestic. Emphasis shall be on climatologically appropriate and affordable semi-rural housing. Weekend sketches, 12 hours and quick studio programmes shall be used to encourage creativity. Each phase of the course work shall be assessed separately by the department’s Academic Committee, while the final assessment would be carried out by a panel of assessor appointed by the Head of Department.
The student will be expected to demonstrate and maintain a high level of creative thinking and excellence in the translation of concepts generated from these into functional physical forms. To achieve this general goal, the student-architect is advised to continuously attempt to explore alternative solutions while taking design decisions. Further, the candidate should begin to appreciate that concepts do not necessarily follow information in a succession of steps; that they are interacting and may even be reversible to better alternatives.
Design Studio Conduct
(a) Attendance to all studio sessions and field trips is mandatory for every registered studio member. Minimum of 75.00% recorded attendance is mandatory.
(b) All studio projects shall be reviewed and assessed on completion via jury system(s) of no less than five (5) jurors..
(c) All studio members shall be present throughout the duration of the jury. Students arriving late or departing early may be considered absent.
(d) Every student shall maintain portfolio of all projects undertaken during the year for final assessment by the school’s committee of examiners.
Design Studio-Works Schedule per semester
Week 1-3 – Field Trips with case studies
Week 3-7 – Analysis/Synthesis . First Interim Jury.
Week 8-15 – Conceptualisation to final Design with models.
Completion – Final Jury.
Design Studio Task
The task of this design studio method is therefore to identify the opportunities and constraints of development of the study area and its environs, and to evolve planning and architectural solutions that are responsive to the problem within the context of time and space with an aim to maximizing the opportunities, while ameliorating the associated environmental issues of the studied community. It is expected that while being amenable to change it also could be predicted by unpredicted events and demands.
Design Studio Process
PHASE 1: Documentation of Data collected.
PHASE 2: Detailed Analysis for Design Proposals.
PHASE 3: Synthesis of Development Alternative:
PHASE 4: Presentation Drawings of Evaluated Option.
Strategies for future development implementation.
Problem definition, data gathering, documentation and studio for a. the class would be divided into 6 (six) groups for this aspect of their study. The study groups would record all information collected in a graphic format, and at the end, present their works verbally to the studio forum. Every member of the class is expected to be comprehensively informed about all aspects of the study area during the exercise.
The class would be divided into 3 (three) groups for this phase of the study. Each group would have at least two (two) students from each of the proceeding documentation groups. In phase 3 (three) the groups are expected to:
(i) Analyse and evaluate available data/information from the documentation exercise.
(ii) Conduct schematic projections using available maps and information. The groups must base their proposals on three different scenarios for the likely future development of the community. Such scenarios could hinge on an economic philosophy, socio-political philosophy or any idea, which the groups deem feasible/viable to ameliorate the stress of ruralisation or urbanisation and stimulate per capita growth rate.
Synthesis of Development Alternatives:
The study group for this phase would be the same as for phase 3 (three). The challenges for this phase are as follows:
(i) State their goals/objectives.
(ii) Formulation of conceptual scenarios for the realisation of the development goals and implementation strategies based on the analysis and projections.
(iii) Concretisation of concepts i.e. translation of visual structural organisational schema into a physical context. This should include preliminary road network or the area, and evaluation of an instrument to guide the orderly development of the community. This aspect of the study include Action Area layouts for various key land uses to test the basic assumption of various key land uses to test the basic assumption of the group which could be in the form of in-fill development, upgrading, revitalisation, redevelopment, etc. each group is expected to present three (3) dimensional illustration of the social/economic philosophy of the group for the development of the community.
NOTE: The student is advised to recognise that the itemization of the components of the study process, as above, is primarily for ease of communication. Evaluation of design solutions does not necessarily follow a logical linear approach. The dilemma of the designer is the cyclical nature of his/her take-a situation whereby he/she moves between analysis-synthesis until the ultimate evolution of a satisfactory solution based on evaluations.
Presentation Drawings of Evaluated Option.